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Table 3 Cognition, function, and quality of life data for completers who remained on protocol for both treatment periods and achieved sustained physiological ketosis (12-week mean beta-hydroxybutyrate level ≥ 0.6 mmol/L) during the ketogenic diet intervention, showing mean baseline scores and changes at weeks 6 and 12 (data shown by treatment period, by treatment sequence, and for all patients)

From: Randomized crossover trial of a modified ketogenic diet in Alzheimer’s disease

  First treatment period Second treatment period All patients Treatment effect
Ketogenic-usual diet (n = 10) Usual-ketogenic diet (n = 8) Ketogenic-usual diet (n = 10) Usual-ketogenic diet (n = 8) Ketogenic diet (n = 18) Usual diet (n = 18)
Cognition (ACE-III)
Baseline 73.2 ± 14.3 68.3 ± 17.2 80.1 ±  14.4 66.0 ± 22.1 70.0 ±  18.0 74.8 ±  16.4 + 2.56 ±  7.17 (P = 0.12)
Change at week 6 + 4.90 ±  5.24 0.00 ±  4.41 + 0.40 ±  4.03 0.00 ±  2.45 + 2.72 ±  4.82 + 0.22 ±  4.08
Change at week 12 + 4.30 ±  4.55 −3.00 ±  4.93 − 0.10 ±  3.41 − 2.75 ±  5.95 + 1.17 ±  6.20 −1.39 ±  4.29
Daily function (ADCS-ADL)
Baseline 69.1 ±  6.5 64.6 ±  8.7 69.6 ±  8.7 60.3 ±  16.2 65.2 ±  12.3 67.4 ±  8.8 + 2.95 ±  5.22 (P = 0.037)
Change at week 6 + 1.10 ±  3.90 − 1.00 ±  2.45 − 0.70 ±  2.58 + 0.63 ±  2.39 + 0.89 ±  3.23 −0.83 ±  2.46
Change at week 12 + 0.70 ±  3.59 −4.13 ±  5.46 − 1.00 ±  2.79 + 0.38±  3.66 + 0.56 ±  3.52 − 2.39 ±  4.35
Quality of life (QOL-AD)
Baseline 35.4 ± 5.0 32.1 ±  5.8 36.9 ±  7.5 30.3 ±  8.2 33.1 ±  6.9 34.8 ±  7.1 + 4.28 ±  7.27(P = 0.031)
Change at week 6 + 0.10 ±  3.31 + 1.00 ±  4.14 − 0.90 ±  7.91 + 1.75 ±  5.65 + 0.83 ±  4.44 −0.06 ±  6.41
Change at week 12 + 3.50 ±  4.38 − 0.63 ±  6.93 − 0.70 ±  3.59 + 3.75 ±  9.56 + 3.61 ±  6.91 − 0.67 ±  5.16
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation
  2. Treatment effects and P values refer to the difference between the ketogenic and usual diet mean within-individual change at week 12 (for all patients)
  3. ACE-III Addenbrookes Cognitive Examination – III, ADCS-ADL Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study - Activities of Daily Living, QOL-AD Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease
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