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Table 2 Cognition, daily function, and quality of life data for all randomized patients, showing mean baseline scores and changes at weeks 6 and 12 (data shown by treatment period, by treatment sequence, and for all patients)

From: Randomized crossover trial of a modified ketogenic diet in Alzheimer’s disease

  First treatment period Second treatment period All patients Treatment effect
Ketogenic-usual diet (n = 13) Usual-ketogenic diet (n = 13) Ketogenic-usual diet (n = 13) Usual-ketogenic diet (n = 13) Ketogenic diet (n = 26) Usual diet (n = 26)
Cognition (ACE-III)
Baseline 69.3 ±  15.2 71.1 ±  15.5 72.5 ±  20.3 70.3 ±  19.3 69.8 ±  17.0 71.8 ±  17.7 + 2.12 ±  8.70 (P = 0.24)
Change at week 6 + 2.82 ±  7.55 + 0.46 ±  5.32 −1.96 ± 6.02 − 0.03 ±  2.49 + 1.39 ±  5.69 − 0.75 ±  5.70
Change at week 12 + 3.45 ±  4.44 − 1.77 ±  6.04 −1.92 ±  7.26 −2.90 ±  4.57 + 0.28 ±  5.48 −1.84 ±  6.55
Daily function (ADCS-ADL)
Baseline 66.7 ± 7.7 65.8 ±  8.2 64.5 ±  13.2 62.3 ±  13.0 64.5 ±  10.7 65.2 ±  10.8 + 3.13 ±  5.01 (P = 0.0067)
Change at week 6 + 1.06 ±  3.53 − 0.85 ±  2.51 + 0.04 ±  2.70 + 0.30 ±  2.08 + 0.68 ±  2.87 −0.40 ±  2.59
Change at week 12 + 0.22 ±  3.63 −4.46 ±  4.58 − 1.54 ±  2.82 + 0.04 ±  3.07 + 0.13 ±  3.30 −3.00 ±  4.00
Quality of life (QOL-AD)
Baseline 33.8 ±  5.6 33.9 ±  5.8 34.1 ±  8.5 31.8 ±  7.3 32.8 ±  6.4 34.0 ±  7.1 + 3.37 ±  6.86 (P = 0.023)
Change at week 6 −0.26 ±  3.39 + 0.46 ±  3.28 + 0.43 ±  7.56 + 1.71 ±  4.37 + 0.73 ±  3.96 + 0.45 ±  5.71
Change at week 12 + 2.86 ±  4.64 −1.15 ±  5.41 + 0.31 ±  3.68 + 3.03 ±  7.52 + 2.95 ±  6.12 −0.42 ±  4.60
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation
  2. Regarding withdrawals, all data up to the point of withdrawal are shown, with regression imputation used to calculate values for the week(s) post-withdrawal
  3. Treatment effects and P values refer to the difference between the ketogenic and usual diet mean within-individual change at week 12 (for all patients)
  4. ACE-III Addenbrookes Cognitive Examination – III, ADCS-ADL Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study - Activities of Daily Living, QOL-AD Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease
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