Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics for all randomized patients

From: Randomized crossover trial of a modified ketogenic diet in Alzheimer’s disease

Characteristic Ketogenic-usual diet (n = 13) Usual-ketogenic diet (n = 13) All patients (n = 26)
Age (years) 68.0 ±5.4 (range, 57–77) 71.7 ± 6.2 (range, 61–79) 69.8 ± 6.0 (range, 57–79)
Sex (male) 10 (77%) 6 (46%) 16 (62%)
Education (years) 13.2 ± 3.6 11.5 ± 1.1 12.3 ±  2.7
Ethnicity
European 11 (85%) 11 (85%) 22 (85%)
Maori 1 (8%) 1 (8%) 2 (8%)
Cook Islander 0 1 (8%) 1 (4%)
Indian 1 (8%) 0 1 (4%)
Screening tests
Dementia severity rating scale 11.8 ± 5.2 12.4 ± 4.8 12.1 ± 4.9
Geriatric depression scale 2.2 ± 1.7 2.2 ± 2.0 2.2 ± 1.8
Hachinski ischemia scale 2.1 ± 1.4 1.4 ± 1.0 1.7 ±  1.3
Body mass index 27.8 ± 5.9 26.6 ± 2.7 27.2 ± 4.5
Apolipoprotein E genotype
Noncarrier (E2/3) 2 (15%) 1 (8%) 3 (12%)
Noncarrier (E3/3) 6 (46%) 0 6 (23%)
Heterozygote (E3/4) 4 (31%) 11 (85%) 15 (58%)
Homozygote (E4/4) 1 (8%) 1 (8%) 2 (8%)
Comorbidities relevant to ketogenic diet
Type 2 diabetes 0 2 (15%) 2 (8%)
Ischemic heart disease 2 (15%) 1 (8%) 3 (12%)
Cholecystectomy 0 1 (8%) 1 (4%)
History of urinary calculus 1 (8%) 2 (15%) 3 (12%)
History of gout 0 2 (15%) 2 (8%)
Medications relevant to cognition
Donepezil 4 (31%) 4 (31%) 8 (31%)
Beta-blocker 4 (31%) 1 (8%) 5 (19%)
Statin 2 (15%) 2 (15%) 4 (15%)
Benzodiazepine 1 (8%) 1 (8%) 2 (8%)
No medications at all 3 (23%) 4 (31%) 7 (27%)
Usual diet (by weight)
Fat 21% 21% 21%
Saturated 11% 12% 12%
Unsaturated 10% 9% 9%
Protein 24% 24% 24%
Fibre 7% 8% 8%
Net carbohydrate 48% 47% 47%
Usual diet (by energy intake)
Fat 37% 37% 37%
Protein 19% 19% 19%
Carbohydrate 44% 44% 44%
  1. Except for % variables, values are presented as mean ± standard deviation
  2. Due to round-off, some percent variables may add up to slightly over 100%
\