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Table 2 Neuropsychological results for the subgroups of monolinguals and bilinguals included in the longitudinal study

From: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study on the protective effect of bilingualism against dementia using brain atrophy and cognitive measures

  Monolinguals Bilinguals Group effects Time effects Interaction effects
Time 1 Time 2 Time 1 Time 2 F-score1 F-score2 F-score3
MMSE 26.8 (2.73) 25.7 (3.02) 27.7 (2.13) 27.1 (3.02) 1.46 5.87* 0.68
FAQ 3.80 (2.96) 5.40 (4.47) 3.07 (1.49) 5.40 (2.92) 0.15 9.15* 0.42
Boston 9.53 (1.68) 8.87 (2.36) 9.93 (1.03) 9.40 (1.12) 0.70 7.74* 0.09
Phonetic fluency 14.0 (8.34) 6.73 (2.79) 11.2 (3.73) 9.13 (1.81) 0.02 14.74* 4.19*
Semantic fluency 21.4 (16.3) 10.0 (3.05) 13.6 (5.41) 9.60 (1.55) 2.56 15.92* 3.45
WLA 10.0 (3.09) 9.73 (3.31) 8.47 (1.36) 9.13 (2.03) 1.74 0.75 0.90
WLR 0.87 (0.83) 0.53 (0.64) 1.00 (0.65) 1.13 (0.52) 3.39 0.49 2.51
Remote memory 8.80 (2.01) 9.13 (1.64) 9.47 (1.13) 9.93 (1.03) 2.71 1.54 0.06
Clock-drawing 7.50 (2.28) 6.29 (2.46) 7.40 (1.30) 6.73 (1.03) 0.08 9.39 0.73
  1. Cells in the table indicate the groups’ means (standard deviation in parenthesis) for each neuropsychological test at time 1 and time 2. Two participants (1 bilingual and 1 monolingual) did not complete the neuropsychological evaluation at time 2. Thus, the table shows statistics excluding these participants (N = 30; 15 bilinguals and 15 monolinguals)
  2. MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, FAQ Functional Activities Questionnaire, WLA word list acquisition, WLR word list recall
  3. *p < 0.05 uncorrected
  4. 1The main effect of bilingualism estimated by means of a two-way mixed ANOVA, including time as within-subject factor and bilingualism as between-subject factor
  5. 2The main effect of time estimated by means of a two-way mixed ANOVA, including time as within-subject factor and bilingualism as between-subject factor
  6. 3The interaction effect between time and bilingualism estimated by means of an ANCOVA model, including time as within-subject factor, bilingualism as between-subject factor, and time between explorations (in months) as covariate of no interest