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Table 4 Optical coherence tomography angiography studies on individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

From: Retinal microvasculature dysfunction is associated with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

Author Sample Neurocognitive diagnosis OCTA imaging Adjusted for confounders Projection artifact removed Corrected for FAZ Superficial capillary plexus (SCP) Deep capillary plexus (DCP) FAZ
Lahme et al. [14] 36 AD and 38 control NIA-AA RTVue XR Avanti No No No Microvascular densities of SCP were significantly lower in AD than controls.
Negative correlation between flow density and Fazekas scale.
No significant difference. No significant difference.
Jiang et al. [44] 12 AD, 19 MCI, and 21 control NIA-AA Zeiss Angioplex No Yes No Fractal dimensions of SCP were significantly lower in AD than controls. Fractal dimensions of DCP were significantly lower in AD and MCI than controls.
Fractal dimensions were positively related to MMSE in MCI patients.
Not available.
Bulut et al. [12] 26 AD and 26 control Clinically (NIA-AA, DSM-IV) RTVue XR100-2 No Not available No Microvascular densities of SCP were significantly lower in AD than controls.
Correlations were found between MMSE and vascular densities and FAZ.
Not available. FAZ was significantly enlarged in AD than controls.
Zhang et al. [16] 16 AD/MCI and 16 control NIA-AA RTVue XR Avanti Age-matched Yes No Microvascular densities of SCP were significantly lower in early AD or amnestic type MCI than controls.
Positive correlations between vascular densities of SCP and MoCA.
No significant difference. Not available.
Zabel et al. [11] 27 AD and 27 control Clinically (NIA-AA, DSM-IV) and radiologically (PET scan) RTVue XR Avanti No Yes No No significant difference. Microvascular densities of DCP were significantly lower in AD than controls. FAZ was larger in AD than controls.
Yoon et al. [13] 39 AD, 37 MCI, and 133 control NIA-AA Cirrus 5000 Angioplex Yes Not available No Microvascular densities of SCP were significantly lower in AD than controls and AD vs MCI but not between MCI and controls. Not available. No significant difference.
den Haan et al. [37] 48 AD and 48 controls NIA-AA Cirrus 5000 Angioplex Yes Not available No No significant difference. Not available. No significant difference.
Wu et al. [15] 18 AD, 21 MCI, and 33 control AD (NINCDS-ADRDA), MCI (Petersen criteria) RTVue XR Avanti No No No No significant difference. Microvascular densities of DCP were significantly lower in AD and MCI than controls. FAZ was significantly largest in AD, followed by MCI, and lastly controls.
Current study 24 AD, 37 MCI, and 29 control AD (DSM-IV), MCI (Petersen criteria) Cirrus 5000 Angioplex Yes Yes Yes Microvascular densities of SCP were significantly lower in AD and MCI than controls. Microvascular densities of DCP were significantly lower in AD than controls. No significant difference.
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, DSM-IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, FAZ foveal avascular zone, MCI mild cognitive impairment, OCTA optical coherence tomography angiography, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, NIA-AA National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer’s Association, NINCDS-ADRDA National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association