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Table 2 Multivariate analysis of vessel density and fractal dimension with cognitive impairment

From: Retinal microvasculature dysfunction is associated with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

Cognitive status Superficial capillary plexus Deep capillary plexus
Mean ± SD β 95 CI P value* Mean ± SD β 95 CI P value*
Vessel density (%)
 Control 15.66 ± 0.96 Reference 21.54 ± 1.55 Reference
 MCI 14.94 ± 1.02 − 0.72 − 1.22 to − 0.21 0.006 20.81 ± 1.65 − 0.73 − 1.54 to 0.09 0.081
 AD 14.78 ± 1.14 − 0.88 − 1.49 to − 0.26 0.006 20.42 ± 1.60 − 1.12 − 2.00 to − 0.21 0.015
Fractal dimension
 Control 1.861 ± 0.010 Reference 1.879 ± 0.013 Reference
 MCI 1.850 ± 0.011 − 0.011 − 0.016 to − 0.006 < 0.001 1.876 ± 0.014 − 0.003 − 0.010 to 0.004 0.386
 AD 1.853 ± 0.011 − 0.008 − 0.014 to − 0.002 0.006 1.876 ± 0.014 − 0.004 − 0.011 to 0.004 0.371
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, CI confidence intervals, MCI mild cognitive impairment, SD standard deviation
  2. *Adjusted for age, gender, race, diabetes, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic levels), and signal strength of OCTA scans