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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Association between physical activity and conversion from mild cognitive impairment to dementia

  Never-PA (n = 99,873) Initiation-PA (n = 45,598) Withdrawal-PA (n = 45,014) Maintenance-PA (n = 56,664) P value
Age, year 68.7 ± 9.3 66.4 ± 9.2 67.2 ± 9.1 64.6 ± 9.1 < 0.0001
Female, n (%) 72,836 (72.9) 30,862 (67.7) 30,131 (66.9) 32,204 (56.8) < 0.0001
Hypertension, n (%) 58,178 (58.3) 24,777 (54.3) 24,889 (55.3) 28,962 (51.1) < 0.0001
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 22,448 (22.5) 9542 (20.9) 10,062 (22.4) 11,171 (19.7) < 0.0001
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 45,981 (46.0) 20,976 (46.0) 20,893 (46.4) 25,596 (45.2) 0.001
Obesity*, n (%) 37,096 (37.1) 16,617 (36.4) 16,407 (36.5) 20,160 (35.6) < 0.0001
Body mass index, kg/m2 24.16 ± 3.25 24.15 ± 3.05 24.15 ± 3.10 24.13 ± 2.88 0.257
Smoking, n (%)      < 0.0001
 Non-smoker 82,345 (82.5) 36,071 (79.1) 36,017 (80.0) 40,576 (71.6)  
 Ex-smoker 9812 (9.8) 6093 (13.4) 5665 (12.6) 11,689 (20.6)  
 Current smoker 7716 (7.7) 3434 (7.5) 3332 (7.4) 4399 (7.8)  
Drinking, n (%)      < 0.0001
 Non-drinker 84,755 (84.9) 35,743 (78.4) 36,858 (81.9) 39,453 (69.6)  
 Mild to moderate drinker 12,598 (12.6) 8593 (18.9) 6953 (15.5) 15,241 (26.9)  
 Heavy drinker 2520 (2.5) 1262 (2.8) 1203 (2.7) 1970 (3.5)  
Time to conversion from MCI to dementia (months) 31.3 ± 16.6 31.6 ± 16.7 31.6 ± 16.8 31.0 ± 16.4 < 0.0001
  1. PA physical activity
  2. *Body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2