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Table 3 Association between S1P (tertiles) and cognitive impairment, expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI)

From: Immunomodulatory sphingosine-1-phosphates as plasma biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular cognitive impairment

  CIND (n = 160), OR (95% CI)* AD (n = 113), OR (95% CI)* VaD (n = 31), OR (95% CI)*#
d16:1 S1P
 1st tertile 1.63 (0.79–3.38) 2.24 (0.85–5.89) 6.12 (1.20–31.33)
 2nd tertile 1.18 (0.59–2.37) 1.74 (0.69–4.39) 8.19 (1.41–47.56)
 3rd tertile 1 1 1
d18:1 S1P
 1st tertile 1 1 1
 2nd tertile 1.10 (0.54–2.22) 1.14 (0.45–2.88) 0.94 (0.23–3.84)
 3rd tertile 1.28 (0.63–2.63) 2.64 (0.97–7.16) 3.78 (0.95–14.99)
d18:1 to d16:1 ratio
 1st tertile 1 1 1
 2nd tertile 0.91 (0.45–1.83) 1.51 (0.57–4.01) 4.43 (0.90–21.80)
 3rd tertile 2.30 (1.07–4.94) 5.97 (2.03–17.54) 7.75 (1.53–39.28)
  1. CIND cognitive impairment no dementia, AD Alzheimer’s disease, VaD vascular dementia, S1P sphingosine-1-phosphate, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. *Adjusted for age, gender, education, presence of APOE4 allele, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular disease
  3. #Estimated using Firth’s method due to separation where hypertension perfectly predicts VaD