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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the study population

From: Associations between vascular risk factors and subsequent Alzheimer’s disease in older adults

  No. (%) of participants, vascular risk factors  
Total (n = 178,586) AD (n = 10,732) Non-AD (n = 167,854) P value
Sex*     < 0.0001
 Male 81,242 (45.5) 3742 (34.9) 77,500 (46.2)  
 Female 97,344 (54.5) 6990 (65.1) 90,354 (53.8)  
Age group*     < 0.0001
 65 to 69 years 23,471 (13.1) 74 (0.7) 23,397 (13.9)  
 70 to 74 years 80,333 (45.0) 2352 (21.9) 77,981 (46.5)  
 75 to 79 years 48,208 (27.0) 3898 (36.3) 44,310 (26.4)  
 Older than 80 years 26,574 (14.9) 4408 (41.1) 22,166 (13.2)  
Income, deciles*     < 0.0001
 Medical aid 1899 (1.1) 258 (2.4) 1641 (1.0)  
 Low (1st–3rd decile) 36,433 (20.4) 2037 (19.0) 34,396 (20.5)  
 Middle (4th–7th decile) 48,421 (27.1) 2832 (26.4) 45,589 (27.2)  
 High (8th–10th decile) 91,833 (51.4) 5605 (52.2) 86,228 (51.4)  
Lifestyles
 Smoking status*     < 0.0001
  Never smoking 130,940 (73.3) 8475 (79.0) 122,465 (73.0)  
  Ex-smoking 26,613 (14.9) 1230 (11.5) 25,383 (15.1)  
  Current smoking 21,033 (11.8) 1027 (9.6) 20,006 (11.9)  
 Alcohol consumption*     < 0.0001
  Rarely (0–2 days/week) 158,170 (88.6) 9795 (91.3) 148,375 (88.4)  
  Light (3–4 days/week) 9275 (5.2) 376 (3.5) 8899 (5.3)  
  Heavy (5–7 days/week) 11,141 (6.2) 561 (5.2) 10,580 (6.3)  
 Exercise*     < 0.0001
  No exercise 121,405 (68.0) 7795 (72.6) 113,610 (67.7)  
  Exercise 57,181 (32.0) 2937 (27.4) 54,244 (32.3)  
Comorbidities
 Depression* 14,075 (7.9) 1270 (11.8) 12,805 (7.6) < 0.0001
 Charlson Comorbidity Index*     < 0.0001
  0 21,574 (12.1) 975 (9.1) 20,599 (12.3)  
  1 40,912 (22.9) 2014 (18.8) 38,898 (23.2)  
  ≥ 2 116,100 (65.0) 7743 (72.2) 108,357 (64.6)  
Healthcare visit frequency*,†     < 0.0001
 First quartile 44,748 (25.1) 1904 (17.7) 42,844 (25.5)  
 Second quartile 44,669 (25.0) 2325 (21.7) 42,344 (25.2)  
 Third quartile 44,595 (25.0) 2751 (25.6) 41,844 (24.9)  
 Fourth quartile 44,574 (25.0) 3752 (35.0) 40,822 (24.3)  
Medication history*
 HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors 41,904 (23.5) 2611 (24.3) 39,293 (23.4) 0.029
 Antidiabetic medication 28,439 (15.9) 2056 (19.2) 26,383 (15.7) < 0.0001
 Antihypertensive medication 106,098 (59.4) 6101 (62.4) 99,397 (59.2) < 0.0001
 Antidepressants 10,318 (5.8) 1028 (9.6) 9290 (5.5) < 0.0001
 Benzodiazepine and sleep pill 47,203 (26.4) 3835 (35.7) 43,368 (25.8) < 0.0001
 Antiplatelet medication 50,994 (28.6) 3491 (32.5) 47,503 (28.3) < 0.0001
Laboratory findings, mean (SD)
 Cholesterol level, mg/dL
  Total cholesterol 196.4 (38.4) 198.6 (39.3) 196.3 (38.4) < 0.0001
  LDL-C 116.2 (35.3) 117.6 (35.8) 116.1 (35.2) < 0.0001
  HDL-C 52.8 (13.4) 52.9 (13.7) 52.8 (13.4) 0.211
     Triglyceride 135.6 (68.6) 138.6 (69.9) 135.4 (68.5) < 0.0001
 Fasting glucose, mg/dL 101.9 (21.0) 102.8 (22.3) 101.9 (20.9) < 0.0001
 Hemoglobin, g/dL 13.3 (1.5) 13.0 (1.4) 13.3 (1.5) < 0.0001
Physical examination findings, mean (SD)
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 130.3 (15.9) 130.4 (16.4) 130.3 (15.9) 0.534
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 78.0 (9.8) 78.1 (10.1) 78.1 (9.8) 0.728
 Body mass index, kg/m2 23.8 (3.1) 23.5 (3.2) 23.8 (3.1) < 0.0001
  1. *Group comparisons by chi-squared tests
  2. The fourth quartile group had the highest frequency of medical visits
  3. Group comparisons by T tests