Skip to main content

Table 2 BACE1 blood-based biomarkers

From: β-Secretase1 biological markers for Alzheimer’s disease: state-of-art of validation and qualification

BACE1 activity (method)  Antibody Substrate Clinical study Result
ELISA Anti-BACE1 Ab SECB1&2 [56, 57] Synthetic peptide substrates containing the β-cleavage site (Calbiochem, EMD, Gibbstown, NJ, USA) [59] Shen et al. [36] Plasma BACE1 activity significantly increased by 53.2% in MCI and by 68.9% in AD compared to HC
ELISA Anti-BACE1 Ab SECB1&2 [56, 57] Synthetic substate-C-terminally labeled with the fluorescent, Luciferase Yellow, and N-terminally labeled with the quenching, Dabsyl Cervellati et al. [35] Increased BACE1 activity in serum of AD
ELISA Biotinylated detector mAb, diluted in a buffer adapted for the plasma matrix Kit-based assay EQ 6541–9601-L; Euroimmun AG, Lübeck, Germany [18] Vergallo et al. [37] Plasma BACE1 significantly higher in women than in men in cognitively healthy individuals at clinical risk for AD
Solution-based platelet BACE1 assay   Fluorogenic substrate (Calbiochem, BACE1 substrate I) Johnston et al. [39] 17% increase in platelet membrane BACE1 activity in AD compared to HC
Solution-based platelet BACE1 assay   Fluorescence-quenching substrate (Calbiochem, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) Bermejo-Bescós et al. 2013 [40] No significant difference in BACE1 activity between MCI and HC
Solution-based platelet BACE1 assay   Fluorogenic substrate (Sigma A1472 or Bachem M2465) Wongchitrat et al. [44] Baseline platelet membrane BACE1 activity not significantly different between MCI vs HC
Immunoassay   Immunoassay kit (CUSABIO, USA) Vakilian et al. [45] Elevated plasma levels of BACE1 in AD vs HC
RNA expression analysis   Real-time quantitative RT-PCR Ghafouri-Fard et al. [50] BACE1 levels significantly high in bipolar disorder
RNA expression analysis   Real-time quantitative RT-PCR Nafisi-Far et al. [51] BACE1 levels significantly high in schizophrenia
  1. Abbreviations: CSF cerebral spinal fluid, MCI individuals with mild cognitive impairment, AD patients with Alzheimer’s disease dementia, HC cognitively healthy individuals, ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Ab antibody, t-tau total peptide tau protein, amyloid beta, BACE1 beta secretase1