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Table 1 Descriptive measures of the final sample

From: Age and APOE genotype affect the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and power in the alpha band, a marker of brain disease

Variable Whole sample YOUNG34 (N = 20) OLD34 (N = 16) YOUNG33 (N = 44) OLD33 (N = 33) Group comparison
Sex (M; F) 31; 82 4; 16 3; 13 12; 32 12; 21 χ2(3, N = 113) = 2.484, p = 0.482
Age 59.92 ± 7.52 55.05 ± 2.76 66.56 ± 5.67 54.48 ± 2.9 66.91 ± 6.27 Y33 − Y34 : t(62) =  − 0.749, p = 0.478
O33 − O34 : t(47) = 0.187, p = 0.853
Education 4.60 ± 0.62 4.55 ± 0.69 4.8 ± 0.41 4.64 ± 0.57 4.48 ± 0.71 F(3, 108) = 0.987, p = 0.402, η2 = 0.027
MMSE 29.16 ± 0.94 29.25 ± 0.97 29.25 ± 0.86 29.07 ± 0.87 29.18 ± 1.07 F(3, 109) = 0.250, p = 0.861, η2 = 0.007
Depression 1.29 ± 1.39 1.42 ± 1.64 1.27 ± 1.10 1.38 ± 1.41 1.10 ± 1.37 F(3, 100) = 0.288, p = 0.834, η2 = 0.009
Anxiety 1.82 ± 2.12 1.80 ± 2.19 2.11 ± 2.67 1.89 ± 2.14 1.63 ± 1.96 F(3, 96) = 0.140, p = 0.936, η2 = 0.004
BMI 24.98 ± 3.56 24.53 ± 2.74 24.42 ± 3.85 25.53 ± 4.16 24.76 ± 2.98 F(3, 107) = 0.613, p = 0.608, η2 = 0.017
Physical activity 0.012 ± 0.012 0.011 ± 0.010 0.010 ± 0.012 0.015 ± 0.013 0.011 ± 0.012 F(3, 108) = 1.006, p = 0.393, η2 = 0.027
Total gray matter (× 103) 5.73 ± 0.51 5.80 ± 0.40 5.48 ± 0.47 5.87 ± 0.55 5.62 ± 0.48 F(3, 107) =3.193, p =0.027, η2=0.082
Y33O33 (p= 0.028),  Y33O34 (p= 0.009)
Precuneus (× 103) 8.46 ± 1.04 8.62 ± 1.06 8.10 ± 0.93 8.82 ± 1.13 8.05 ± 0.75 F(3,107) =4.706, p =0.004, η2=0.117
Y33O33 (p= 0.001),Y33O34 (p= 0.014)
Y34O33 (p= 0.046)
Hippocampus (×103) 3.71 ± 0.41 3.79 ± 0.39 3.44 ± 0.38 3.83 ± 0.38 3.63 ± 0.40 F(3,107) =4.610, p =0.004, η2=0.114
Y33O33 (p= 0.031),Y33O34 (p= 0.001)
Y34O33 (p= 0.009)
Episodic memory 24.28 ± 5.13 24.35 ± 4.97 23.09 ± 6.32 24.05 ± 4.78 25.16 ± 5.49 F(3, 96) = 0.466, p = 0.707, η2 = 0.014
Working memory 10.26 ± 2.10 10.37 ± 2.19 10.00 ± 2.31 10.20 ± 1.95 10.39 ± 2.21 F(3, 108) = 0.151, p = 0.929, η2 = 0.004
  1. Mean values ± standard deviation were provided for sample characteristics as well as variables used for correlation analyses. These include the following: sex (where M stands for male and F for female); age (in years); education (in terms of educational level on a 0—illiterate—to 5—postsecondary education—scale); Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); anxiety (Goldberg’s test); depression (Geriatric Depression Scale); body mass index (BMI); total physical activity (TPA, normalized by actigraphy wear time); total gray matter (GM), hippocampal, and precuneal volumes (bilateral average, in mm3); episodic memory (Logical Memory II Index: immediate and delayed recall for gist); and working memory (Digit Span Index: direct and reverse). Results are displayed for the whole sample and also for each subsample of interest (young E3/E4—Y34; old E3/E4—O34; young E3/E3—Y33; and old E3/E3—O33). Chi-squared test was calculated for sex, Student’s t test to compare within age groups, and ANOVAs for the rest of the variables. When significant differences between groups were found, least significant difference post hoc measures were calculated and significant p values are shown and marked in bold. No significant between-group differences arose across most comparisons, except for GM volumes, where older groups presented smaller volumes