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Table 5 Exploratory univariable analyses for the association between extracranial carotid and intracranial arterial stenosis and AD biomarkers in the CI group

From: Association of carotid and intracranial stenosis with Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers

AD biomarker Variables Presence of any detectable stenosis
   Any extracranial carotid stenosis Any intracranial stenosis
   Stenosis− Stenosis+ p value da Stenosis− Stenosis+ p value d
Aβ biomarker Global Aβ 1.627 ± 0.530 1.609 ± 0.412 0.857 0.334 1.648 ± 0.539 1.573 ± 0.472 0.304 0.147
Neurodegeneration biomarker AD-CT 2.600 ± 0.284 2.518 ± 0.260 0.205 0.288 2.596 ± 0.311 2.561 ± 0.234 0.376 0.121
HVa − 2064 ± 1225 − 2396 ± 947 0.146 0.277 − 2004 ± 1262 − 2362 ± 1109 0.047* 0.296
   Presence of stenosis based on severity threshold
   ≥ 50% intracranial stenosisb Number of stenotic intracranial arteries ≥ 2c
   Stenosis− Stenosis+ p value d Stenosis− Stenosis+ p value d
Aβ biomarker Global Aβ 1.646 ± 0.522 1.415 ± 0.411 0.052 0.451 1.640 ± 0.536 1.544 ± 0.414 0.234 0.185
Neurodegeneration biomarker AD-CT 2.584 ± 0.290 2.579 ± 0.254 0.940 0.017 2.598 ± 0.292 2.521 ± 0.252 0.136 0.270
HVa − 2087 ± 1202 − 2515 ± 1327 0.128 0.352 − 2021 ± 1227 − 2602 ± 1080 0.008* 0.484
   Presence of stenosis according to location
   Anterior circulation Posterior circulation
   Stenosis− Stenosis+ p value d Stenosis− Stenosis+ p value d
Aβ biomarker Global Aβ 1.667 ± 0.535 1.519 ± 0.456 0.049* 0.288 1.623 ± 0.519 1.605 ± 0.498 0.878 0.035
Neurodegeneration biomarker AD-CT 2.585 ± 0.309 2.580 ± 0.224 0.902 0.017 2.589 ± 0.289 2.540 ± 0.257 0.459 0.171
HVa − 2047 ± 1244 − 2323 ± 1147 0.142 0.227 − 2100 ± 1217 − 2400 ± 1236 0.287 0.246
  1. Data for continuous variables presented as means ± SD (SUVR for global Aβ, mm for AD-CT, and mm3 for HVa)
  2. CI cognitively impaired, SUVR standardized uptake value ratio, AD-CT Alzheimer’s disease-signature cortical thickness, HVa hippocampal volume adjusted for intracranial volume
  3. ad indicates Cohen’s delta
  4. b“Stenosis−” group of “≥50% intracranial stenosis” means individuals with no stenosis or < 50% intracranial stenosis
  5. c“Stenosis−” group of “number of stenotic intracranial arteries ≥ 2” means patients with no stenosis or only one stenotic intracranial artery
  6. *p < 0.05