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Table 4 Risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia associated with the different combinations of presentation, based on the presence of anxiety symptoms and subjective cognitive decline at baseline (n = 14,066)

From: Subjective cognitive decline, anxiety symptoms, and the risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia

Different combinations of presentation No. of MCI and dementia/total (%) Hazard ratio (95% CI)a p value Survival (25th centile) in years (95% CI)b
No anxiety or SCD 1332/9535 (14.0) 1.0 (Ref) Ref 8.2 (7.9–8.6)
Anxiety only 113/722 (15.7) 1.4 (1.1–1.8) 0.002 7.1 (4.2–9.9)
SCD only 700/3261 (21.5) 1.9 (1.7–2.1) < 0.001 4.1 (3.7–4.4)
Both anxiety and SCD 140/548 (25.6) 2.4 (1.9–2.9) < 0.001 3.1 (2.4–3.7)
  1. CI confidence interval, MCI mild cognitive impairment, SCD subjective cognitive decline, Ref reference group
  2. aModel adjusted for baseline variables of age, sex, ethnicity, years of education, APOE e4 status, current smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, Mini-Mental State Examination score, total score on Geriatric Depression Scale, history of depression, use of antidepressants, and use of anxiolytics
  3. bThe estimated time that is needed for a quarter of the participants to develop MCI or dementia. The 95% CI was computed with 1000 bootstrap sampling