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Table 2 The risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia based on the presence of anxiety and subjective cognitive decline at baseline (n = 14,066)

From: Subjective cognitive decline, anxiety symptoms, and the risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia

Presence of symptoms No. of MCI and dementia/total (%) Model 1 (unadjusted)a Model 2b Model 3c   Model 4 (final)d
HR (95% CI) p HR (95% CI) p HR (95% CI) p HR (95% CI) p
Anxiety
 No 2032/12796 (15.9) 1.0 (Ref) Ref 1.0 (Ref) Ref 1.0 (Ref) Ref 1.0 (Ref) Ref
 Yes 253/1270 (19.9) 1.4 (1.2–1.6) < 0.001 1.6 (1.4–1.8) < 0.001 1.5 (1.3–1.7) < 0.001 1.3 (1.2–1.5) < 0.001
SCD
 No 1445/10257 (14.1) 1.0 (Ref) Ref 1.0 (Ref) Ref 1.0 (Ref) Ref 1.0 (Ref) Ref
 Yes 840/3809 (22.1) 2.0 (1.8–2.2) < 0.00 2.0 (1.9–2.2) < 0.001 2.0 (1.8–2.2) < 0.001 1.9 (1.7–2.1) < 0.001
  1. SCD subjective cognitive decline, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, Ref reference group
  2. aCox regression included only anxiety and SCD without covariate adjustment
  3. bCox regression adjusted for covariates of age, sex, and ethnicity
  4. cCovariate adjustment as in model 2, with additional adjustment for years of education, APOE e4 status, current smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and Mini-Mental State Examination score
  5. dCovariate adjustment as in model 3, with additional adjustment for total score on Geriatric Depression Scale, history of depression, use of antidepressants, and use of anxiolytics