Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic information of the study participants at baseline (n = 14,066) and comparison between those did and did not develop dementia during the follow-up period

From: Subjective cognitive decline, anxiety symptoms, and the risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia

Variable Overall sample (n = 14,066) Participants who did not develop MCI or dementia (n = 11,781) Participants who developed MCI or dementia
(n = 2285)
p valuea
Age, median (IQR) 71 (65–77) 70 (65–76) 76 (70–82) < 0.001
Years of education, median (IQR) 16 (14–18) 16 (14–18) 16 (13–18) < 0.001
Male sex, n (%) 4852 (34.5) 3956 (33.6) 896 (39.2) < 0.001
Ethnicity, n (%)     < 0.001
 White 11,105 (78.9) 9225 (78.3) 1880 (82.3)  
 African American 1967 (14.0) 1680 (14.3) 287 (12.6)  
 Others/unknown 994 (7.1) 876 (7.4) 118 (5.2)  
APOE e4 carrier, n (%) 3240 (23.0) 2537 (21.5) 703 (30.8) < 0.001
Current smoker, n (%) 676 (4.8) 560 (4.8) 116 (5.1) 0.510
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 1666 (11.8) 1399 (11.9) 267 (11.7) 0.800
Hypertension, n (%) 6781 (48.2) 5568 (47.3) 1213 (53.1) < 0.001
Hyperlipidemia, n (%) 6888 (49.0) 5751 (48.8) 1137 (49.8) 0.410
MMSE score, median (IQR) 29 (28–30) 29 (29–30) 29 (28–30) < 0.001
GDS score, median (IQR) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) < 0.001
History of depression, n (%) 3720 (26.4) 3107 (26.4) 613 (26.8) 0.650
Use of antidepressants, n (%) 2666 (19.0) 2227 (18.9) 439 (19.2) 0.730
Use of anxiolytics, n (%) 1659 (11.8) 1410 (12.0) 249 (10.9) 0.150
Presence of anxiety symptoms, n (%) 1270 (9.0) 1017 (8.6) 253 (11.1) < 0.001
Presence of SCD, n (%) 3809 (27.1) 2969 (25.2) 840 (36.8) < 0.001
  1. MCI mild cognitive impairment, IQR interquartile range, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, SCD subjective cognitive decline
  2. aTest of difference between participants with and without longitudinal follow-up data: chi-square test for categorical variables, and Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables. Bold-faced p values are ≤ 0.05