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Table 3 Application of MSC-derived EVs in Alzheimer’s disease

From: Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosome: a promising alternative in the therapy of Alzheimer’s disease

Source Extraction method Administration scheme Results Ref.
hucMSC ExoQuick Male 7 months old AβPP/PS1 mice 30 μg/100 μl, i.v., every 2 weeks, four times Alleviate neuroinflammation and Aβ deposition [111]
ADSCs Ultracentrifuge Co-culture N2a cells with ADSCs in serum-free medium for 2–3 days Carry active NEP
Decrease Aβ levels
RVG-BM-MSC Ultracentrifuge 7-month-old APP/PS1 mice; B6C3-Tg 5 × 1011 /100 μl, i.v. monthly for 4 months Improve learning and memory capabilities
Reduce plaque deposition
Normalize inflammatory cytokine levels
BM-MSC Ultracentrifuge APP/PS1 mice 100 μg/5 μl, i.c.v., once per 2 days for 2 weeks Alleviate iNOS expression
Improve cognitive behavior
Reduce synaptic impairment and LTP
PC-BM-MSC ExoQuick 7-month-old APP/PS1 mice 150 μg/80 μl, i.v., biweekly for 4 months Improve learning and memory capabilities
Restore synaptic dysfunction
Regulate inflammatory responses
hMSC Ultracentrifuge hippocampal cells incubated with HMSC-EVs (6 × 108 particles) for 22 h, add AβOs (500 nM) for 2 h Rescue oxidative stress
Block synapse damage
Carry active catalase
BM-MSC Ultracentrifuge Co-culture MSC-exo with hippocampal neurons in serum-free medium for 24 h, add AβOs (500 nM) for 6 h/24 h Protect neurons against AβO-induced oxidative stress and synapse damage [116]
ADSCs Ultracentrifuge + ExoQuick Incubate NSCs from TG2576 mice with ADSC-exo (200 μg/mL) for 24/48 h Reduce Aβ levels and neuronal apoptosis [117]
BM-MSC Ultracentrifuge 5-month-old APP/PS1 mice 22.4 μg/4 μL, i.c.v. Reduce Aβ burden and the amount of dystrophic neurites
Carry neprilysin
hUMSCs Ultracentrifuge Nine-month-old male APP/PS1 mice 2 mg/ml, i.c.v., continuously at 0.25 μL/h for 14 days Reduce Aβ generation, inflammation and oxidative stress
Inhibit microglia activity
Improve spatial learning and memory function
  1. hucMSC human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, ADSCs human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, CM conditioned medium, hMSC human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells, BM-MSC bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, RVG rabies viral glycoprotein, LTP long-term potentiation, i.v. intravenous injection, i.c.v. intraventricular injection, PC hypoxia-preconditioned, AβOs amyloid beta oligomers, NSCs neuronal stem cells