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Table 3 Application of MSC-derived EVs in Alzheimer’s disease

From: Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosome: a promising alternative in the therapy of Alzheimer’s disease

Source Extraction method Administration scheme Results Ref.
hucMSC ExoQuick Male 7 months old AβPP/PS1 mice 30 μg/100 μl, i.v., every 2 weeks, four times Alleviate neuroinflammation and Aβ deposition [111]
ADSCs Ultracentrifuge Co-culture N2a cells with ADSCs in serum-free medium for 2–3 days Carry active NEP
Decrease Aβ levels
[112]
RVG-BM-MSC Ultracentrifuge 7-month-old APP/PS1 mice; B6C3-Tg 5 × 1011 /100 μl, i.v. monthly for 4 months Improve learning and memory capabilities
Reduce plaque deposition
Normalize inflammatory cytokine levels
[72]
BM-MSC Ultracentrifuge APP/PS1 mice 100 μg/5 μl, i.c.v., once per 2 days for 2 weeks Alleviate iNOS expression
Improve cognitive behavior
Reduce synaptic impairment and LTP
[113]
PC-BM-MSC ExoQuick 7-month-old APP/PS1 mice 150 μg/80 μl, i.v., biweekly for 4 months Improve learning and memory capabilities
Restore synaptic dysfunction
Regulate inflammatory responses
[114]
hMSC Ultracentrifuge hippocampal cells incubated with HMSC-EVs (6 × 108 particles) for 22 h, add AβOs (500 nM) for 2 h Rescue oxidative stress
Block synapse damage
Carry active catalase
[115]
BM-MSC Ultracentrifuge Co-culture MSC-exo with hippocampal neurons in serum-free medium for 24 h, add AβOs (500 nM) for 6 h/24 h Protect neurons against AβO-induced oxidative stress and synapse damage [116]
ADSCs Ultracentrifuge + ExoQuick Incubate NSCs from TG2576 mice with ADSC-exo (200 μg/mL) for 24/48 h Reduce Aβ levels and neuronal apoptosis [117]
BM-MSC Ultracentrifuge 5-month-old APP/PS1 mice 22.4 μg/4 μL, i.c.v. Reduce Aβ burden and the amount of dystrophic neurites
Carry neprilysin
[118]
hUMSCs Ultracentrifuge Nine-month-old male APP/PS1 mice 2 mg/ml, i.c.v., continuously at 0.25 μL/h for 14 days Reduce Aβ generation, inflammation and oxidative stress
Inhibit microglia activity
Improve spatial learning and memory function
[119]
  1. hucMSC human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, ADSCs human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, CM conditioned medium, hMSC human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells, BM-MSC bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, RVG rabies viral glycoprotein, LTP long-term potentiation, i.v. intravenous injection, i.c.v. intraventricular injection, PC hypoxia-preconditioned, AβOs amyloid beta oligomers, NSCs neuronal stem cells