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Table 2 Overview the characteristics of the described exosome isolation methods

From: Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosome: a promising alternative in the therapy of Alzheimer’s disease

Methods Working principle Advantages Disadvantages Ref.
UC Differential centrifugationbased on density Reduced protein contamination
High purity
Low yield, difficult to separate particles of similar size, expensive equipment support [99,100,101]
Density gradient Based on density
additional steps after centrifugation
High purity Low yield, time-consuming [102]
SEC Based on hydrodynamic radius Good reproducibility, rapid and mild
Reduced protein contamination
Low sample recovery [103, 104]
Filtration Based on molecular mass and size Simple and time-saving Potential to alter structural integrity, low sample recovery [105, 106]
Immunoaffinity Antibody capture High selectivity and purity, no need for additional equipment support High cost, nonspecific binding [107]
Commercial kits Precipitation with chemicals High yield High protein contamination [53, 58]
AF4 Laminar flow Classification of EV subtypes, efficiently Low sample recovery and repeatability [108]
Nano-FCM High-resolution flow cytometry High-fidelity sorting Simultaneous detection of multiple EVs, expensive equipment support [109]
Microfluidics Based on physical or mechanical characteristics Low sample volumes, rapid and high purity Not suitable for large sample processing, expensive equipment support [110]
  1. UC ultracentrifugation, SEC size-exclusion chromatography, AF4 asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation, FCM flow cytometry