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Table 2 Repurposed agents currently in Phase III in the Alzheimer’s disease development pipeline (as of February 27, 2020)

From: Repurposed agents in the Alzheimer’s disease drug development pipeline

Agent name Phase Agent mechanism class Therapeutic purpose under study Drug class FDA-approved indication(s) Therapeutic field ClinicalTrials.gov ID(s) (EudraCT ID)
ALZT-OP1a, ALZT-OP1b (cromolyn with and without ibuprofen) III Anti-amyloid, anti-inflammatory Reduce neuronal damage; mast cells may also play a role in amyloid pathology (DMT) Mast cell stabilizer Bronchial asthma; mastocytosis Pulmonary NCT02547818 (2015-002147-34)
Amlodipine II/III Anti-inflammatory, metabolic Vascular risk reduction to preserve cognitive function (DMT) Calcium channel blocker Hypertension; coronary artery disease Cardiovascular NCT02913664
Atorvastatin II/III Anti-inflammatory, metabolic Vascular risk reduction to preserve cognitive function (DMT) Statin Adjunct therapy for myocardial infarction, revascularization procedure, angina Cardiovascular NCT02913664
AXS-05 (DM + Bupropion) II/III Neurotransmitter-based Improve neuropsychiatric symptoms (agitation) Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor Major depressive disorder; easonal affective disorder; smoking cessation Psychiatric NCT03226522
Escitalopram III Neurotransmitter-based Improve neuropsychiatric symptoms (agitation) Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor Major depressive disorder; generalized anxiety disorder Psychiatric NCT03108846
Guanfacine III Neurotransmitter-based Modulation of noradrenergic deficit (cognitive enhancer) Alpha-receptor agonist Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Cardiovascular NCT03116126
Icosapent ethyl II/III Neuroprotective Protect neurons from disease pathology (DMT) Purified w-3 fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid) Hypertriglyceridemia Cardiovascular NCT02719327
Levetiracetam (AGB101) III Neuroprotective Decrease amyloid-induced neuronal hyperactivity (DMT) Anticonvulsant Adjunct therapy for partial-onset seizures; juvenile myoclonic epilepsy; primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures Neurologic NCT03486938
Losartan II/III Anti-inflammatory, metabolic Vascular risk reduction to preserve cognitive function (DMT) Angiotensin II receptor blocker Hypertension; diabetic neuropathy; risk reduction of stroke Cardiovascular NCT02913664
Masitinib III Anti-inflammatory Activity on mast cells, modulation of inflammatory processes (DMT) Selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor Mast cell tumor (veterinary) Hematologic-oncologic NCT01872598 (2010-021218-50)
Metformin II/III Metabolic Improve insulin sensitivity, may improve cognition (DMT) Insulin sensitizer (biguanide) Type 2 diabetes Antidiabetic NCT04098666
Methylphenidate III Neurotransmitter-based Improve neuropsychiatric symptoms (apathy) Stimulant Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Psychiatric NCT02346201
Mirtazapine III Neurotransmitter-based Improve neuropsychiatric symptoms (agitation) Tetracyclic antidepressant Major depressive disorder Psychiatric NCT03031184
Zolpidem III Neurotransmitter-based Improve neuropsychiatric symptoms (sleep disorders) Sedative-Hypnotic Insomnia Neurologic NCT03075241
Zopiclone III Neurotransmitter-based Improve neuropsychiatric symptoms (sleep disorders) Sedative-Hypnotic Insomnia Neurologic NCT03075241
  1. Abbreviations: DMT disease-modifying therapy, DM dextromethorphan