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Table 2 Subject demographics, CSF marker levels, and neuropsychological test scores by CSF profile

From: Association of glial and neuronal degeneration markers with Alzheimer’s disease cerebrospinal fluid profile and cognitive functions

  CSF profile  
Non-AD
T-tau/Aβ42 ≤ 0.52
(n = 24)
AD
T-tau/Aβ42 > 0.52
(n = 28)
p valuea
Demographics
  Gender (M/F) 16/8 17/11 0.66
  Age, years 67 (46–80) 70 (51–84) 0.17
  Education, years 14.0 (9–20) 12.5 (6–17) 0.11
Clinical diagnosis
  SCI/MCI/AD/LBD 10/13/0/1 2/9/16/1 N/Ab
CSF measures
  Aβ42 (pg/ml) 703 (374–2332) 454 (160–822) N/Ac
  T-tau (pg/ml) 173 (100–722) 416 (132–838) N/Ac
  NFL (ng/ml) 1.9 (0.9–6.5) 2.5 (1.2–4.5) 0.15
  YKL-40 (ng/ml) 165 (83–399) 203 (124–367) 0.12
  S100B (pg/ml) 215 (132–335) 230 (129–458) 0.17
  GFAP (ng/ml) 1.0 (0.1–7.1) 1.3 (0.5–21.3) 0.09
Cognitive domains
Global cognition
  MMSE, score 28 (24–30) 27 (24–30) 0.01
Verbal episodic memory
  RAVLT immediate recall, score 36 (23–66) 26.5 (13–51) 0.003
  RAVLT delayed recall, score 6.5 (0–15) 1.5 (0–12) < 0.001
  RAVLT recognition-fp, score 9.0 (3–15) 5.5 (−3–15) 0.003
  Story immediate recall, score 13.5 (5–17) 8 (1–18) 0.005
  Story delayed recall, score 12.0 (1–19) 5.5 (0–16) 0.002
Non-verbal episodic memory
  ROCF immediate recall, score 13.3 (0–27) 7.3 (0–26) 0.04
  ROCF delayed recall, score 12.8 (0–25) 8.5 (0–26) 0.07
Language
  Verbal fluency animal, score 20 (8–33) 14 (4–27) 0.02
  Verbal fluency H+S, score 24.0 (14–48) 25.5 (6–63) 1.00
Processing speed
  TMT-A, seconds 43.5 (21–133) 48.0 (27–116) 0.22
  Stroop—part I, seconds 23.5 (20–42) 24.5 (17–34) 0.64
Executive functions
  TMT-B, seconds 109 (44–340) 153 (60–343) 0.06
  DSST, score 8.5 (3–51) 7.0 (2–61) 0.24
  Stroop 4th/3rd part, seconds 2.1 (1.4–4.0) 2.1 (1.6–5.8) 0.25
  1. Abbreviations: AD Alzheimer’s disease, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, DDST Digit Symbol Substitution Test, fp false positives, LBD Lewy body dementia, MCI mild cognitive impairment, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, N/A not applicable, RAVLT Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, ROCF Rey–Osterrieth complex figure, SCI subjective cognitive impairment, TMT Trail Making Test
  2. Values are shown as median (range) or as numbers per group, aMann-Whitney U non-parametric tests used for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables, p values not applicable for bclinical diagnosis due to CSF profiles being part of the diagnostic criteria for AD and c42 and T-tau due to their values used for defining CSF profiles