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Table 5 Associations between the neuropsychiatric symptoms (affective, agitation, and psychotic symptoms) and the longitudinal changes in the Z-scores of the neuropsychological tests

From: Neuropsychiatric symptoms in cognitively normal older persons, and the association with Alzheimer’s and non-Alzheimer’s dementia

Neuropsychological tests (Z-score)Cognitive domainsSample sizePresence of affective symptomsaPresence of agitation symptomsaPresence of psychotic symptomsa
Regression coefficient (95% CI)bp valueRegression coefficient (95% CI)bp valueRegression coefficient (95% CI)bp value
Global Z-scoreGlobal5380− 0.08 (− 0.12, − 0.04)< 0.001− 0.08 (− 0.12, − 0.03)0.001− 0.25 (− 0.44, − 0.06)0.010
Benson Complex Figure CopyVisuospatial6304− 0.08 (− 0.15, – 0.01)0.030− 0.07 (− 0.15, 0.01)0.069− 0.19 (− 0.67, 0.29)0.431
Craft Story 21 Immediate RecallcImmediate memory5520− 0.14 (− 0.22, − 0.06)< 0.001− 0.02 (− 0.11, 0.06)0.608− 0.33 (− 0.75, 0.09)0.121
Craft Story 21 Delayed RecallcDelayed memory5517− 0.18 (− 0.26, − 0.10)< 0.001− 0.05 (− 0.14, 0.04)0.284− 0.52 (− 0.86, − 0.18)0.003
Benson Complex Figure RecallDelayed memory6289− 0.10 (− 0.17, − 0.03)0.006− 0.10 (− 0.19, − 0.02)0.017− 0.27 (− 0.58, 0.04)0.092
Multilingual Naming TestLanguage5501− 0.07 (− 0.16, 0.02)0.106− 0.10 (− 0.20, − 0.00)0.041− 0.73 (− 1.17, − 0.28)0.001
Verbal Fluency–AnimalLanguage12,418− 0.09 (− 0.13, − 0.05)< 0.001− 0.06 (− 0.11, − 0.02)0.007− 0.10 (− 0.28, 0.08)0.264
Verbal Fluency–L-wordsLanguage62980.00 (− 0.06, 0.07)0.938− 0.11 (− 0.18, − 0.03)0.004− 0.13 (− 0.42, 0.15)0.368
Number Span Test ForwardAttention5532− 0.04 (− 0.11, 0.03)0.253− 0.10 (− 0.18, − 0.02)0.014− 0.20 (− 0.52, 0.12)0.217
Number Span Test BackwardAttention5531− 0.04 (− 0.11, 0.03)0.270− 0.13 (− 0.21, − 0.05)0.001− 0.16 (− 0.50, 0.18)0.350
Trail Making Test Part AProcessing speed11,327− 0.11 (− 0.15, – 0.07)< 0.001− 0.04 (− 0.09, 0.00)0.061− 0.30 (− 0.46, − 0.14)< 0.001
Trail Making Test Part BExecutive function11,249− 0.11 (− 0.15, − 0.07)< 0.001− 0.07 (− 0.12, − 0.03)0.001− 0.29 (− 0.45, − 0.14)< 0.001
  1. CI confidence interval
  2. aAffective symptoms included depression, anxiety, and apathy. Agitation symptoms included disinhibition, agitation, and irritability. Psychotic symptoms included delusions and hallucinations
  3. bModel adjusted for baseline variables of age, sex, ethnicity, years of education, APOE e4 status, and use of antidepressants. Significant estimates (with p ≤ 0.05) are highlighted in bold
  4. cFor this outcome measure, the “exchangeable covariance” was used in the mixed linear regression because the model could not converge when the “unstructured covariance” was used