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Table 4 Associations between the neuropsychiatric symptoms (affective, agitation, and psychotic symptoms) and incident dementia

From: Neuropsychiatric symptoms in cognitively normal older persons, and the association with Alzheimer’s and non-Alzheimer’s dementia

Dementia subtypePresence of affective symptomsaPresence of agitation symptomsaPresence of psychotic symptomsa
HR (95% CI)bp valueHR (95% CI)bp valueHR (95% CI)bp value
All-cause dementia1.5 (1.2–1.8)< 0.0011.6 (1.3–2.1)< 0.0013.6 (2.0–6.4)< 0.001
Alzheimer’s dementia1.4 (1.1–1.7)0.0181.7 (1.3–2.2)< 0.0012.2 (1.1–4.6)0.027
Vascular dementia1.9 (1.0–3.5)0.0421.2 (0.6–2.5)0.6495.7 (1.3–25.6)0.023
Dementia with Lewy Bodies2.8 (1.5–5.3)0.0020.7 (0.3–1.7)0.39913.9 (3.8–50.7)< 0.001
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration2.7 (0.8–9.4)0.1144.4 (1.3–15.0)0.0198.7 (2.0–38.7)0.004
Other or unknown subtypes of dementia1.3 (0.7–2.6)0.4332.2 (1.1–4.3)0.0244.5 (1.4–14.4)0.011
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aAffective symptoms included depression, anxiety, and apathy. Agitation symptoms included disinhibition, agitation, and irritability. Psychotic symptoms included delusions and hallucinations
  3. bModel adjusted for baseline variables of age, sex, ethnicity, years of education, APOE e4 status, and use of antidepressants. Significant risk estimates (with p ≤ 0.05) are highlighted in bold