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Table 1 Demographic information of the study participants at baseline (n = 12,452), and comparison between those did and did not develop dementia during the follow-up period

From: Neuropsychiatric symptoms in cognitively normal older persons, and the association with Alzheimer’s and non-Alzheimer’s dementia

VariableOverall sample (n = 12,452)Participants who did not develop dementia (n = 11,728)Participants who developed dementia (n = 724)p valuea
Age, median (IQR; full range)72 (67–79; 60–104)72 (67–78; 60–104)79 (74–84; 60–99)< 0.001
Male sex, n (%)4514 (36.3)4241 (36.2)273 (37.7)0.400
Ethnicity, n (%)   < 0.001
 White9902 (79.5)9279 (79.1)623 (86.0) 
 African American1773 (14.2)1696 (14.5)77 (10.6) 
 Others/unknown777 (6.2)753 (6.4)24 (3.3) 
Years of education, median (IQR; full range)16 (14–18; 0–29)16 (14–18; 0–29)16 (12–18; 3–29)< 0.001
APOE e4 genotype, n (%)   < 0.001
 Two copies of e4 allele242 (1.9)212 (1.8)30 (4.1) 
 One copy of e4 allele2528 (20.3)2309 (19.7)219 (30.2) 
 No e4 allele/unknown9682 (77.8)9207 (78.5)475 (65.6) 
History of psychiatric diagnosis, n (%)3513 (28.2)3308 (28.2)205 (28.3)0.950
Use of antidepressants, n (%)2278 (18.3)2133 (18.2)145 (20.0)0.210
Use of anxiolytics, n (%)1436 (11.5)1362 (11.6)74 (10.2)0.260
Use of antipsychotics, n (%)86 (0.7)83 (0.7)3 (0.4)0.350
Presence of NPS, n (%)
 Any NPS3941 (31.6)3635 (31.0)306 (42.3)< 0.001
 Depression1629 (13.1)1488 (12.7)141 (19.5)< 0.001
 Anxiety1107 (8.9)1027 (8.8)80 (11.0)0.035
 Apathy574 (4.6)506 (4.3)68 (9.4)< 0.001
 Sleep1306 (10.5)1212 (10.3)94 (13.0)0.024
 Appetite686 (5.5)601 (5.1)85 (11.7)< 0.001
 Agitation733 (5.9)658 (5.6)75 (10.4)< 0.001
 Irritability1411 (11.3)1301 (11.1)110 (15.2)< 0.001
 Disinhibition327 (2.6)293 (2.5)34 (4.7)< 0.001
 Elation114 (0.9)99 (0.8)15 (2.1)< 0.001
 Motor disturbance160 (1.3)143 (1.2)17 (2.3)0.009
 Delusions97 (0.8)78 (0.7)19 (2.6)< 0.001
 Hallucinations41 (0.3)35 (0.3)6 (0.8)0.016
  1. IQR interquartile range, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, NPS neuropsychiatric symptoms
  2. aTest of difference between participants who did and did not developed dementia during the follow-up period: chi-square test for categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables. Boldfaced p values are ≤ 0.05