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Table 4 Blood biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases

From: Relevance of biomarkers across different neurodegenerative diseases

Biomarker Target Advantages Disadvantages
Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio Amyloid-β peptides Automated platform available for measurements Difference in values between disease groups too small to be used as a diagnostic tool. Levels can be affected by pattern change from monomer to protofibrils in blood.
MDS-OAβ Amyloid-β oligomers Differentiates AD patients from HC with high sensitivity and specificity, not affected by pattern change in the blood Poorly validated and limited availability of technology relative to ELISA-based methods
IIR assay Amyloid α-helix versus β-sheet form Detects biophysical properties of pathologic forms of amyloid instead of just concentrations Poorly validated and limited availability of technology relative to ELISA-based methods
p-Thr181 tau Tau peptides Can accurately predict 11C-PiB PET status Does not differentiate between tauopathies other than AD
t-Tau Tau peptides Automated platform available for measurements Large overlap between diagnostic groups
NfL White matter damage Indicates the presence of neurodegeneration; strong correlation with CSF NfL Increased in multiple neurodegenerative diseases
  1. Abbreviations: MDS-OAβ Multimer Detection System-Oligomeric Amyloid β, IIR assay immune-infrared sensor assay, NfL neurofilament light chain