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Table 3 CSF biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases

From: Relevance of biomarkers across different neurodegenerative diseases

Biomarker Target Advantages Disadvantages
Aβ42 Amyloid-β peptides Strong correlation with 11C-PiB PET status Different cutoff values used in different labs
Aβ40 Amyloid-β peptides Added value when combined with Aβ42 Not a clinically meaningful biomarker in isolation
Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio Amyloid-β peptides Stronger diagnostic and prognostic value than Aβ42 alone Not yet widely implemented
Aβ42/Aβ38 ratio Amyloid-β peptides Stronger diagnostic and prognostic value than Aβ42 alone Not yet widely implemented
t-Tau Tau peptides Reasonably sensitive for late-stage AD Poor specificity, not clinically useful in isolation
p-Thr181 tau Tau peptides Reasonably sensitive for late-stage AD Poor specificity, not clinically useful in isolation
NfL White matter damage Indicates the presence of neurodegeneration Increased in multiple neurodegenerative diseases
  1. Abbreviations: amyloid-β, NfL neurofilament light chain