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Table 2 Descriptives, effect sizes, and results of ANCOVA for physical test scores

From: Effects of low- and high-intensity physical exercise on physical and cognitive function in older persons with dementia: a randomized controlled trial

TestaGroupBaseline12 weeks24 weeksEffect size, baseline-12 weeksbF(1, 66)c, pEffect size, baseline-24 weeksbF(1, 66)c, p
6MWT (m)Exercise278 (89.4)280 (87.0)289 (95.0)0.18 [− 0.30, 0.65]2.73, p > 0.050.08 [− 0.40, 0.56]1.36, p > 0.05
Control234 (88.6)222 (98.8)238 (87.4)
SPPB (score)Exercise8.75 (2.25)9.19 (2.37)8.96 (2.31)0.28 [− 0.20, 0.76]3.27c, p > 0.050.16 [− 0.32, 0.64]2.46, p > 0.05
Control7.77 (2.08)7.58 (2.14)7.61 (2.41)
6MWS (m/s)Exercise0.93 (0.31)0.93 (0.25)0.98 (0.25)0.04 [− 0.44, 0.52]1.46, p > 0.050.41 [− 0.07, 0.90]12.83, p < 0.001**
Control0.85 (0.22)0.84 (0.22)0.79 (0.27)
FICSIT-4 (score)Exercise3.36 (1.06)3.45 (1.19)3.30 (1.31)0.15 [− 0.33, 0.63]1.45, p > 0.05− 0.15 [0.63, 0.33]0.09, p > 0.05
Control2.90 (1.40)2.81 (1.24)3.03 (1.35)
TUG (s)Exercise14.4 (6.24)13.6 (5.56)14.1 (6.62)0.23 [− 0.26, 0.71]2.35, p > 0.050.17 [− 0.31, 0.66]1.43, p > 0.05
Control17.3 (5.56)17.8 (7.57)18.0 (7.20)
Leg strength (N)Exercise202 (91.4)208 (98.4)214 (95.8)0.21 [− 0.27, 0.69]2.01, p > 0.050.07 [− 0.41, 0.55]0.39, p > 0.05
Control188 (51.4)177 (58.5)194 (67.0)
  1. Values are mean (SD). N total = 69; N = 39 exercise vs. N = 30 control. Baseline-12 weeks is the low-intensity phase; baseline-24 weeks is the full study period (low-intensity and high-intensity phase). a6MWT 6-meter walk test, SPPB short physical performance Battery, 6MWS 6-meter walk speed; TUG Timed Up & Go. bCohen’s d with 95% CI, positive effect sizes are in favor of exercise group. cANCOVA with baseline as a covariate and use of walking aid as a factor, the main effect of group (exercise vs. control). **Significant at p < 0.001