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Table 2 Descriptives, effect sizes, and results of ANCOVA for physical test scores

From: Effects of low- and high-intensity physical exercise on physical and cognitive function in older persons with dementia: a randomized controlled trial

Testa Group Baseline 12 weeks 24 weeks Effect size, baseline-12 weeksb F(1, 66)c, p Effect size, baseline-24 weeksb F(1, 66)c, p
6MWT (m) Exercise 278 (89.4) 280 (87.0) 289 (95.0) 0.18 [− 0.30, 0.65] 2.73, p > 0.05 0.08 [− 0.40, 0.56] 1.36, p > 0.05
Control 234 (88.6) 222 (98.8) 238 (87.4)
SPPB (score) Exercise 8.75 (2.25) 9.19 (2.37) 8.96 (2.31) 0.28 [− 0.20, 0.76] 3.27c, p > 0.05 0.16 [− 0.32, 0.64] 2.46, p > 0.05
Control 7.77 (2.08) 7.58 (2.14) 7.61 (2.41)
6MWS (m/s) Exercise 0.93 (0.31) 0.93 (0.25) 0.98 (0.25) 0.04 [− 0.44, 0.52] 1.46, p > 0.05 0.41 [− 0.07, 0.90] 12.83, p < 0.001**
Control 0.85 (0.22) 0.84 (0.22) 0.79 (0.27)
FICSIT-4 (score) Exercise 3.36 (1.06) 3.45 (1.19) 3.30 (1.31) 0.15 [− 0.33, 0.63] 1.45, p > 0.05 − 0.15 [0.63, 0.33] 0.09, p > 0.05
Control 2.90 (1.40) 2.81 (1.24) 3.03 (1.35)
TUG (s) Exercise 14.4 (6.24) 13.6 (5.56) 14.1 (6.62) 0.23 [− 0.26, 0.71] 2.35, p > 0.05 0.17 [− 0.31, 0.66] 1.43, p > 0.05
Control 17.3 (5.56) 17.8 (7.57) 18.0 (7.20)
Leg strength (N) Exercise 202 (91.4) 208 (98.4) 214 (95.8) 0.21 [− 0.27, 0.69] 2.01, p > 0.05 0.07 [− 0.41, 0.55] 0.39, p > 0.05
Control 188 (51.4) 177 (58.5) 194 (67.0)
  1. Values are mean (SD). N total = 69; N = 39 exercise vs. N = 30 control. Baseline-12 weeks is the low-intensity phase; baseline-24 weeks is the full study period (low-intensity and high-intensity phase). a6MWT 6-meter walk test, SPPB short physical performance Battery, 6MWS 6-meter walk speed; TUG Timed Up & Go. bCohen’s d with 95% CI, positive effect sizes are in favor of exercise group. cANCOVA with baseline as a covariate and use of walking aid as a factor, the main effect of group (exercise vs. control). **Significant at p < 0.001