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Table 3 Association of single medication with the development of dementia with possible AD after TBI occurrence

From: Beneficial association of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and statins on the occurrence of possible Alzheimer’s disease after traumatic brain injury

A. Cox regression model (reference group = no medication)
 p valuesHazard ratio95% confidence interval
Age< .00011.111.101.13
Sex0.641.130.671.93
African American0.280.790.511.22
Hispanic< .00011.851.312.61
Other0.970.990.432.24
ACEI0.010.570.370.87
Beta blocker< .00010.360.230.57
Metformin0.120.680.411.11
Statins0.070.700.481.03
Medication Duration0.721.001.001.00
Sleep disorder0.580.880.561.39
Thyroid0.900.970.621.53
Cardiac Dysrhythmia0.071.390.972.00
Cancer0.040.600.370.97
Congestive heart failure0.030.500.260.94
Coronary artery disease0.890.980.701.37
Diabetes0.111.320.941.85
Hyperlipidemia0.051.361.001.86
Hypertension0.991.000.731.37
Kidney0.090.520.241.12
Liver0.471.330.612.91
Lung0.530.910.671.23
Peripheral Artery Disease0.350.810.511.27
Stroke0.850.960.651.42
Alcohol0.930.980.671.44
Anxiety0.201.240.891.71
Bipolar0.791.060.681.65
PTSD0.440.870.601.25
Schizophrenia0.801.080.601.94
Depression0.011.461.091.97
Drug substance0.770.930.561.53
Number of TBI occurrence< .00011.031.011.06
B. Multivariable Cox regression model (reference group = no medication or statin)
 No med as the referenceStatin as the reference
Medicationp valueHR95%CIp valueHR95%CI
ACEI0.010.570.370.870.440.850.561.29
Beta blocker< .00010.360.230.570.010.560.360.88
Metformin0.120.680.411.110.921.020.631.68
Statins0.070.700.481.03
  1. Note: Models adjusted by demographic variables and comorbidities