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Table 4 CSF biomarkers of neuroinflammation in the FTD/FTLD spectrum

From: CSF biomarkers of neuroinflammation in distinct forms and subtypes of neurodegenerative dementia

 NumberCHIT1 all (pg/ml), median (IQR)CHIT1 WT + Het (pg/ml), median (IQR)YKL-40 (ng/ml), median (IQR)GFAP (ng/ml), median (IQR)
Clinical diagnosis
 bvFTD173178 (2008–6437)3877 (2178–6713)186 (120–254)1.365 (0.784–1.977)
 PPA82390 (1642–4306)2390 (1642–4306)228 (138–268)1.101 (0.877–1.252)
nfvPPA62934 (1657–6597)2934 (1657–6597)209 (127–273)1.054 (0.800–1.373)
svPPA21120, 29591120, 2959205, 2721.016, 1.260
 ALS-FTD911,500 (6309–16,048)14,900 (6671–16,789)290 (228–392)0.867 (0.565–1.326)
 PSP231767 (929–3074)1767 (968–3135)192 (151–242)0.971 (0.463–1.314)
 CBS121659 (825–4391)1659 (1220–5471)161 (135–192)1.200 (0.687–1.413)
 FTD + parkinsonism31744, 941, 19,3001744, 941, 19,300176, 154, 1341.577, 0.672, 1.248
FTLD proteinopathies
 FTLD-TAU381766 (987–3237)1732 (1092–3237)186 (148–225)1.002 (0.649–1.324)
 FTLD-TDP344484 (1930–11,625)4575 (1966–12,000)209 (134–264)1.226 (0.676–1.686)
TDP without ALS253120 (1743–6437)3149 (1703–6713)180 (132–254)1.248 (0.784–1.792)
 TDP with ALS911,500 (6309–16,048)14,900 (6671–16,789)290 (228–392)0.867 (0.565–1.326)
  1. ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS-FTD amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with frontotemporal dementia, bvFTD behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia, CBS corticobasal syndrome, CHIT1 chitotriosidase 1, FTD frontotemporal dementia, FTLD-TAU frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tau pathology, FTLD-TDP frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP43 pathology, GFAP glial fibrillary acidic protein, Het heterozygotes for CHIT1 24-bp duplication, IQR interquartile range, nfvPPA nonfluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia, PPA primary progressive aphasia, PSP progressive supranuclear palsy, svPPA semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia, WT wild type for CHIT1 24-bp duplication, YKL-40 chitinase-3-like protein 1