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Table 2 Biomarkers of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the diagnostic groups

From: CSF biomarkers of neuroinflammation in distinct forms and subtypes of neurodegenerative dementia

DiagnosisPrion diseaseADFTDControlsP
N101407240 
CHIT1 all (pg/ml), median (IQR)3669 (1568–8017)2259 (1603–4944)2657 (1437–5800)1409 (783–2537)< 0.001a
WT (pg/ml), median (IQR)4382 (1874–8311)2399 (1884–4247)3706 (1776–7374)2095 (1226–2948)0.016a
Het (pg/ml), median (IQR)4078 (1570–9379)2065 (1465–5409)1006 (648–1894)803 (628–1090)< 0.001a
YKL-40 (ng/ml), median (IQR)315 (222–453)240 (176–293)192 (135–257)145 (115–161)< 0.001a
GFAP (ng/ml), median (IQR)1.028 (0.636–1.698)1.081 (0.534–1.422)1.065 (0.667–1.422)0.665 (0.409–0.978)0.002a
t-tau (pg/ml), median (IQR)4644 (1977–9223)698 (491–1013)253 (179–347)168 (138–228)< 0.001a
NfL (pg/ml), median (IQR)7225 (3879–12,188)1405 (942–1730)2805 (1382–5158)595 (430–831)< 0.001a
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, CHIT1 chitotriosidase 1, CJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, FTD frontotemporal dementia, GFAP glial fibrillary acidic protein, Het heterozygotes for CHIT1 24-bp duplication, IQR interquartile range, N number, NfL neurofilament light chain protein, t-tau total tau protein, YKL-40 chitinase-3-like protein 1, WT wild type for CHIT1 24-bp duplication
  2. aKruskal-Wallis test