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Table 2 The risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia based on the presence of depression and subjective cognitive decline (n = 13,462)

From: Depression, subjective cognitive decline, and the risk of neurocognitive disorders

Adjustment model Depression SCD
HR (95% CI)a P value HR (95% CI)a P value
Model 1 (unadjusted) a 1.4 (1.2–1.6) < 0.001 2.0 (1.8–2.2) < 0.001
Model 2 b 1.5 (1.3–1.7) < 0.001 2.1 (1.9–2.3) < 0.001
Model 3 c 1.4 (1.2–1.6) < 0.001 2.1 (1.9–2.3) < 0.001
Model 4 (final) d 1.4 (1.2–1.6) < 0.001 2.0 (1.9–2.2) < 0.001
  1. SCD subjective cognitive decline, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aCox-regression included only depression and SCD without covariate adjustment
  3. bCox-regression adjusted for covariates of age, sex, and ethnicity
  4. cCovariate adjustment as in model 2, with additional adjustment for years of education, family history of dementia, current smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia
  5. dCovariate adjustment as in model 3, with additional adjustment for Mini-Mental State Examination score