Skip to main content


Table 2 Summary of results from the generalized linear models estimated by generalized estimating equations (GEE). Only the results for the interaction effect for WMH and the time since baseline are displayed as a demonstration of the role of WMH in predicting the slope of these variables over time. The interpretation of the standardized beta coefficients is based on SD unit increases between log-transformed WMH and corresponding outcomes. All outcomes were raw scores that were transformed into z-scores based on the performance of the sample at baseline in order to facilitate effect size comparisons between the variables of interest. For example, for the MMSE, for every one SD unit increase in WMH, MMSE raw scores declined by 0.16 SD units per year. Age at baseline, race, sex, years of education, APOE ε4 carrier status, baseline hippocampal volume, baseline total brain volume, and the baseline score on the variable of interest were included as covariates in all models. All p values are FDR-adjusted

From: Independent effects of white matter hyperintensities on cognitive, neuropsychiatric, and functional decline: a longitudinal investigation using the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set

VariableBSEp value
Clinical status
 CDR Sum of Boxes0.1260.035< 0.01
Neuropsychological tests
 MMSE− 0.0160.0160.38
 Semantic Fluency− 0.0310.007< 0.01
 TMT-A0.0310.007< 0.01
 TMT-B0.0400.007< 0.01
 LM-IA− 0.0400.0150.02
 LM-IIA− 0.0340.0150.05
 BNT− 0.0020.0140.91
 WAIS-R DSC− 0.0400.009< 0.01
Neuropsychiatric symptoms
 NPI-Q Hyperactivity0.0220.0150.23
 NPI-Q Mood0.0140.0110.27
 NPI-Q Psychosis0.0250.0160.19
 NPI-Q Anxiety0.0070.0140.66
  1. Abbreviations: BNT Boston Naming Test Short Form, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating scale, GDS-15 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, LM-IA Logical Memory Immediate Recall, LM-IIA Logical Memory Delayed Recall, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, NPI-Q Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire, TMT-A Trail Making Test Part A, TMT-B Trail Making Test Part B, WAIS-R DSC Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Digit Symbol Coding