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Table 4 Results of ROC analysis

From: Olfactory function is associated with cognitive performance: results from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study

Cognitive test   Smell test score cut-off*  
  < 8 < 9 < 10 < 11 < 12 AUC (95% CI)
VF Sensitivity 10.4 19.0 37.8 63.0 86.4 0.55
Specificity 92.1 84.8 69.3 44.4 16.1 (0.52–0.57)
Youden’s index 2.5 3.8 7.1 7.4 2.5 p < 0.001
WLL Sensitivity 15.7 28.1 50.0 71.5 92.6 0.58
Specificity 89.4 79.9 63.3 39.8 13.5 (0.55–0.62)
Youden’s index 5.1 8.0 13.3 11.3 6.1 p < 0.001
WLR Sensitivity 15.9 32.6 49.2 72.0 93.2 0.59
Specificity 89.1 79.8 62.5 39.2 13.2 (0.54–0.64)
Youden’s index 5.0 12.4 11.7 9.4 6.4 p = 0.001
TMT-A Sensitivity 14.9 29.6 50.4 71.3 90.4 0.62
Specificity 92.2 85.3 69.8 44.5 16.2 (0.59–0.65)
Youden’s index 7.1 14.9 20.2 15.8 6.6 p < 0.001
TMT-B/A Sensitivity 10.5 19.1 38.3 63.8 88.2 0.55
Specificity 92.1 84.8 69.3 44.4 16.2 (0.53–0.58)
Youden’s index 2.6 3.9 7.6 8.2 4.4 p < 0.001
  1. Youden’s index = sensitivity + specificity − 1. Highest Youden’s index is indicated in italics
  2. Sensitivity, specificity, and Youden’s index are given as percentages
  3. *Individuals having a smell test score below the cut-off are “test positive”, i.e., suspected of being cognitively impaired