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Table 3 Association of smell test scores with cognitive performance

From: Olfactory function is associated with cognitive performance: results from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study

CERAD test   Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
Factor Regression coefficient (95%CI) p value Regression coefficient (95%CI) p value
Verbal fluency
n = 6783
Smell test score 0.79 (0.65–0.92) < 0.001 0.42 (0.28–0.56) < 0.001
Depressive symptoms − 1.27 (−2.22 to −0.32) 0.009 − 1.42 (−2.35 to − 0.49) 0.003
Age − 0.14 (− 0.16 to − 0.12) < 0.001 − 0.12 (− 0.14 to − 0.10) < 0.001
University education 4.05 (3.54–4.57) < 0.001 4.03 (3.54–4.55) < 0.001
Female sex 1.01 (0.54–1.49) < 0.001 1.19 (0.72–1.65) < 0.001
Word list learning
n = 2227
Smell test score 1.19 (0.99–1.39) < 0.001 0.32 (0.13–0.50) 0.001
Depressive symptoms 0.64 (− 1.06–2.35) 0.459 − 0.86 (− 2.30–0.59) 0.245
Age − 0.30 (− 0.32 to − 0.28) < 0.001 − 0.28 (− 0.31 to − 0.26) < 0.001
University education 2.70 (1.88–3.52) < 0.001 2.84 (2.13–3.55) < 0.001
Female sex 3.57 (2.80–4.33) < 0.001 3.84 (3.17–4.51) < 0.001
Word list recall
n = 2227
Smell test score 1.06 (0.86–1.27) < 0.001 0.31 (0.12–0.51) 0.002
Depressive symptoms 1.70 (− 0.02–3.43) 0.053 0.38 (− 1.16–1.92) 0.624
Age − 0.26 (− 0.29 to − 0.24) < 0.001 − 0.25 (− 0.27 to − 0.22) < 0.001
University education 2.18 (1.34–3.01) < 0.001 2.32 (1.56–3.08) < 0.001
Female sex 3.23 (2.45–4.01) < 0.001 3.38 (2.66–4.09) < 0.001
Trail Making Test A
n = 6783
Smell test score − 1.12 (− 1.24 to − 1.00) < 0.001 − 0.25 (− 0.36 to − 0.13) < 0.001
Depressive symptoms 1.41 (0.53–2.28) 0.002 2.23 (1.47–2.99) < 0.001
Age 0.37 (0.35–0.38) < 0.001 0.36 (0.34–0.37) < 0.001
University education − 0.84 (− 1.32 to − 0.36) < 0.001 −0.78 (− 1.19 to − 0.36) < 0.001
Female sex −1.19 (− 1.62 to − 0.76) < 0.001 −1.01 (− 1.39 to − 0.63) < 0.001
Trail Making Test B/A
n = 6783
Smell test score − 0.16 (− 0.21 to − 0.11) < 0.001 −0.01 (− 0.15 to − 0.04) < 0.001
Depressive symptoms 0.42 (0.06–0.77) 0.022 0.44 (0.09–0.80) 0.015
Age 0.02 (0.02–0.03) < 0.001 0.02 (0.01–0.03) < 0.001
University education − 1.07 (− 1.27 to − 0.88) < 0.001 − 1.08 (− 1.28 to − 0.89) < 0.001
Female sex − 0.30 (− 0.47 to − 0.12) 0.001 − 0.36 (− 0.54 to − 0.12) < 0.001
  1. values in italics are statistically significant