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Table 2 CSF biomarkers for predicting the development of AD in patients with MCI

From: Advantages and disadvantages of the use of the CSF Amyloid β (Aβ) 42/40 ratio in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

Study Number of AD patients Number of MCI/ non-AD patients Number of control patients CSF biomarkers Optimal cut-off* Sensitivity % (95% CI)** Specificity % (95% CI)** AUC (95% CI) SL (p value)#
Hansson et al. [31] 0 137 (MCI) 0 42 0.64 ng/mL 93 (82–98) 53 (41–64) 0.77 (0.69–0.84)
42/40 ratio 0.95 87 (76–95) 78 (67–86) 0.87 (0.80–0.92) < 0.05
Hertze et al. [32] 94 166 (MCI) 29 38 MCI-AD vs MCI
  (DD)  42 MSD < 523 67 71 0.73 (0.66–0.80)
   42 MSD/40 ratio < 0.069 85 71 0.86 (0.79–0.91) NP
42 MSD/38 ratio < 0.37 88 71 0.85 (0.79–0.91) NP
Parnetti et al. [33] 28 (AD) 32 58 (MCI-MCI) 0 MCI-AD vs MCI-MCI
(MCI-AD) 28 (OND)  42 420.5 pg/mL 56 (38–74) 96 (88–99) 0.85
42/40 ratio 5.3 71 (48–89) 92 (79–98) 0.82 NP
AD vs non-AD (OND)
42 500.0 pg/mL 63 (42–81) 79 (59–92) 0.70
42/40 ratio 5.0 74 (54–89) 79 (59–92) 0.78 NP
Lewczuk et al. [21] 75 (AD-MCI) 0 45 42 691 pg/mL 69.3 88.9 0.895 (0.819–0.946)
42/40 ratio 0.06 93.3 100 0.970 (0.916–0.993) < 0.0001
Baldeiras et al. [27] 168 197 (MCI) 66 42 585 pg/mL 82 83 0.882 (0.837–0.927)
42/40 ratio 0.068 79 86 0.874 (0.827–0.921) n.s.
Frölich et al. [34] 0 115 (MCI) 0 42 < 600 pg/mL 74 64 0.68
42/40 ratio 59 75 0.66 NP
  1. *Optimal cut-offs were created using different statistical approaches—please see original articles for details.**Sensitivity and specificity are a function of the cut-off, and the cut-offs were calculated in different ways, therefore they are not clearly comparable across different articles. #Significance levels (p values) of the AUC values are comparisons of the Aβ isoform ratios vs Aβ42 alone. Amyloid beta, AD Alzheimer’s Disease, AD-MCI early AD and MCI, AUC area under curve, DD depressive disorder, MCI mild cognitive impairment, MCI-AD mild cognitive impairment patients progressing to AD, MCI-MCI stable MCI patients, MSD Meso Scale Discovery assay, NP not provided, n.s not significant, OND other neurological diseases, SL significance level