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Table 2 Baseline characteristics according to the outcome at follow-up

From: Impact of a clinical decision support tool on prediction of progression in early-stage dementia: a prospective validation study

Characteristic n Stable Progressed p value
n = 345 n = 84
Demographics
 Female, n (%) 429 191 (55) 39 (46) < .0001
 Age, years 429 65 ± 9 72 ± 8 < .0001
 Duration of symptoms, years 380 3 ± 3 3 ± 3 0.36
 MCI/AD/non-AD, n   16/44/24 NA
 CDR, n (0.0/0.5/1.0) 424 198/136/6 11/52/4 NA
APOE status
 APOE e4 carrier, n (%) 146 50 (14) 14 (17) 0.12
Cognitive tests
 MMSE 427 28 ± 2 26 ± 3 < .0001
 Memory—learning 420 42 ± 11 31 ± 10 < .0001
 Memory—recall 420 9 ± 4 4 ± 3 < .0001
 TMT-A, seconds 422 42 ± 19 58 ± 30 < .0001
 TMT-B, seconds 402 102 ± 60 164 ± 82 < .0001
 Fluency—animal 407 23 ± 7 18 ± 6 < .0001
 Fluency—letter 377 14 ± 5 12 ± 5 0.006
 Clock-drawing 394 3 ± 1 2 ± 1 < .0001
CSF
 Aβ42, pg/ml 145 933 ± 285 748 ± 338 0.002
 P-tau, pg/ml 145 53 ± 24 63 ± 33 0.05
 Total tau, pg/ml 145 348 ± 197 445 ± 318 0.03
MRI—visual scores
 GCA (median, Q1–Q3) 418 0.7 ± 0.7 (1, 0–1) 1.2 ± 0.8 (1, 1–2) < .0001
 MTA, right (median, Q1–Q3) 398 0.6 ± 0.8 (0, 0–1) 1.4 ± 1.0 (1, 1–2) < .0001
 MTA, left (median, Q1–Q3) 398 0.6 ± 0.8 (0, 0–1) 1.6 ± 1.0 (1, 1–2) < .0001
 Fazekas score (median, Q1–Q3) 420 0.8 ± 0.8 (1, 0–1) 1.1 ± 0.8 (1, 1–2) 0.009
  1. Differences between groups were assessed using independent t test and chi-square test. Data are presented as mean ± SD unless otherwise specified
  2. Abbreviations: CDR clinical dementia rating (global score, range 0–3); MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination; Memory Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) values, using z-scoring for those with only the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) word list memory test; TMT Trail Making Test; CSF cerebrospinal fluid; Aβ42 amyloid beta 1–42; P-tau tau phosphorylated at threonine 181; MRI magnetic resonance imaging; GCA global cortical atrophy; MTA medial temporal lobe atrophy