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Table 3 Characteristics associated with death and institutionalization during the follow-up

From: CSF level of β-amyloid peptide predicts mortality in Alzheimer’s disease

Characteristics Death Institutionalization
No Yes   No Yes  
(N = 264) (N = 57) P value (N = 250) (N = 71) P value
Age, year, mean (SD) 70.4 (8.2) 73.8 (9.3) 0.001 71.0 (8.2) 70.9 (9.5) 0.89
Women, n (%) 172 (65.2) 28 (49.1) 0.02 159 (63.6) 41 (57.8) 0.39
MMSE, mean (SD) 20.7 (5.6) 18.3 (6.6) 0.008 20.7 (5.9) 18.9 (5.5) 0.01
Level of education, n (%)
 Low 82 (33.7) 24 (44.4)   86 (37.7) 20 (29.0)  
 Intermediate 92 (37.9) 18 (33.3)   77 (33.8) 33 (47.8)  
 High 69 (28.4) 12 (22.2) 0.32 65 (28.5) 16 (23.2) 0.10
APOE ε4, n (%)
 0 100 (37.9) 25 (43.9)   99 (39.6) 26 (36.6)  
 1 117 (44.3) 24 (42.1)   106 (42.4) 35 (49.3)  
 2 47 (17.8) 8 (14.0) 0.65 45 (18.0) 10 (14.1) 0.54
CSF biomarkers, pg/mL, mean (SD)
 Aβ42 505.9 (127.8) 381.6 (118.7) < 0.001 496.6 (135.9) 438.7 (121.3) 0.001
 Aβ40b 13,284 (5362) 13,474 (6697) 0.51 13,195 (5351) 14,165 (6312) 0.36
 Ratio Aβ42/40b 0.047 (0.022) 0.039 (0.013) 0.08 0.046 (0.019) 0.049 (0.038) 0.56
 Tau 680.9 (273.0) 703.6 (296.2) 0.69 685.4 (280.0) 683.2 (267.5) 0.93
 p-Tau 181 102.5 (41.0) 102.9 (28.3) 0.88 102.5 (39.5) 102.8 (37.4) 0.94
  1. aLow: primary school or less, intermediate: secondary to high school, high: baccalaureate or university degree
  2. bCSF Aβ40 was available for 214 patients