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Table 3 Demographic information and concentrations of biomarkers for adults with DS with and without clinical dementia

From: Plasma biomarkers for amyloid, tau, and cytokines in Down syndrome and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease

  Dementia No dementia
n 7 24
Age (years) 52.00 ± 10.36 (40–67) 45.25 ± 10.90 (23–65)
Sex 2 (28.6%) females, 5 (71.4%) males 7 (29.2%) females, 17 (70.8%) males
Intellectual disability severitya 5 (71.4%) mild, 1 (14.3%) moderate, 1 (14.3%) severe 12 (50.0%) mild, 10 (41.7%) moderate, 2 (8.3%) severe
APOE ε4 carrier 4 (57.1%) carriers, 3 (42.9%) non-carriers 4 (16.7%) carriers, 20 (83.3%) non-carriers
40 320.80 (268.20–555.00) 304.80 (150.24–528.00)
42 26.36 (15.16–42.40) 24.14 (14.92–50.40)
42/Aβ40 0.08 (0.05–0.09) 0.09 (0.05–0.13)
42/t-tau 14.76 (2.73–29.18) 20.86 (1.17–93.33)
T-tau 1.88 (0.99–8.96) 1.27 (0.18–12.72)
IL1βb 3.79 (1.65–5.10) 1.44 (0.27–47.20)
IL10c 1.78 (0.62–6.33) 1.26 (0.36–93.20)
IL6c 2.12 (0.44–58.40) 2.12 (0.36–1024.00)
TNFαc 2.58 (1.25–29.84) 3.08 (1.30–328.80)
NfLd 59.84 (16.36–112.60) 25.10 (10.97–55.45)
  1. Values for age given as mean ± standard deviation (range), and concentrations (pg/ml) given are median (range)
  2. aPre-dementia level, assessed via informant report based on everyday functional descriptions
  3. bOne plate failed (3 with dementia, 11 without dementia)
  4. cTwo samples failed (both without dementia)
  5. dFive samples missing (1 with dementia, 4 without dementia)