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Table 1 Group demographics

From: Plasma biomarkers for amyloid, tau, and cytokines in Down syndrome and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease

  DS sAD Controls Group comparison
n 31 27 27 N/A
Age (years) 46.77 ± 10.99 (23–67) 59.33 ± 4.04 (51–67) 49.26 ± 10.40 (24–64) F(2,82) = 14.84, p < 0.001a
Sex 9 (29.0%) females, 22 (71.0%) males 9 (33.3%) females, 18 (66.7%) males 11 (40.7%) females, 16 (59.3%) males Χ(2) = 0.89, p = 0.641
Intellectual disability severityb 17 (54.8%) mild, 11 (35.5%) moderate, 3 (9.7%) severe N/A N/A N/A
APOE ε4 carrier 8 (25.8%) carriers, 23 (74.2%) non-carriers 10 (37.0%) carriers, 17 (63.0%) non-carriers 5 (18.5%) carriers, 22 (81.5%) non-carriers Χ(2) = 2.38, p = 0.304
Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score N/A 19.19 ± 4.42 (7–26) 28.89 ± 1.12 (27–30) t(52) = −11.06, p < 0.001c
  1. Values for age and MMSE score given as mean ± standard deviation (range)
  2. asAD group older than DS and control groups (both p < 0.001), no difference between DS and control groups (p = 0.915)
  3. bPre-dementia level, assessed via informant report based on everyday functional descriptions
  4. csAD compared to controls only