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Table 1 Characteristics of the cohorts examined

From: Prevalence and risk of progression of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease stages: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Cohort Group N Gender
(M/F)
Mean
age (years)
Mean
MMSE
Neuropsychological criteria Biomarkers
Arenaza-Urquijo et al., 2017 [69] IMAP+ CN 73 39/34 66.9 29.0 MMSE score ≥ 28 AV45-PET
Barthel et al., 2011 [77] FBB phase 2 study CN 68 30/38 68.2 NA CDR = 0; MMSE score ≥ 28 FBB-PET
Besson et al., 2015 [78] IMAP CN 54 27/27 65.8 29.0 Cognitive performance > 5th percentile AV45-PET
Brier et al., 2016 [79] Washington University ACS-KADRC CN 157 50/107 53.1 29.2 CDR = 0 PiB-PET
Byun et al., 2017 [80] KBASE CN 205 98/107 68.5 NA CDR = 0 PiB-PET
Cho et al., 2016 [81] Memory Clinic Gangnam Hospital CN 67 25/42 66.1 28.1 No neuropsychological deficits FBB-PET
Clark et al., 2018 [82] WRAP CN 314 96/218 61.5 NA No neuropsychological deficits CSF—NIA-AA criteria
Dubois et al., 2018 [56] INSIGHT_preAD CN 318 117/201 76.0 28.7 Cognitive complaints; MMSE score ≥ 27, CDR = 0, FCSRT total recall score ≥ 41 AV45-PET
Eckerström et al., 2017 [72] Gothenburg MCI Study SCD 113 37/76 62.0 28.0 Cognitive complaints (> 6 months) CSF—NIA-AA criteria
Edmonds et al., 2015 [11] ADNI CN 570 308/262 73.0 NA No neuropsychological deficits CSF—NIA-AA criteria
Gordon et al., 2015 [68] WU-KADRC CN 397 141/257 67.1 29.2 CDR = 0 PiB-PET
Harrington et al., 2013 [83] Huntington Hospital—Pasadena CN 70 27/43 77.2 NA CDR = 0; FAQ = 0; no neuropsychological deficits CSF Aβ42/t-tau ratio
Hatashita and Yamasaki, 2010 [84] Shonan Atsugi Hospital—Japan CN 91 45/46 65.1 29.3 CDR = 0; MMSE score ≥ 28 PiB-PET
Johnson et al., 2013 [85] AV45-A11 study CN 78 34/44 69.4 29.6 MMSE score ≥ 29; no neuropsychological deficits PiB-PET
Kern et al., 2018 [15] H70 Gothenburg Birth Cohort Studies CN 259 130/129 70.6 29.3 CDR = 0 CSF—NIA-AA criteria
Knopman et al., 2012 [73] MCSA CN 529 289/240 78.3 28 No neuropsychological deficits PiB-PET
Lilamand et al., 2016 [86] MAPT CN 271 108/163 76.0 28.2 CDR = 0 PiB-PET
Lim et al., 2014 [87] University of Pittsburgh ADRC and Pepper Registry CN 56 19/37 75.8 28.5 CDR = 0; MMSE score > 27 PiB-PET
Lim et al., 2016 [31] AIBL CN 423 192/231 69.4 28.8 No neuropsychological deficits PiB-PET
Mandecka et al., 2016 [58] Cracow Hospital—Memory Clinic SCD 85 28/57 61.3 NA Cognitive complaints CSF Aβ42 and t-tau
Meyer et al., 2018 [88] PreventAD CN 101 31/70 62.9 NA MoCA ≥ 23 CSF—NIA-AA criteria
Montal et al., 2018 [89] Spain cohorts CN 254 141/113 58.6 28.9 No cognitive complaints; CDR = 0; no neuropsychological deficits CSF—NIA-AA criteria
Ossenkoppele et al., 2014 [90] BACS CN 81 29/52 75.0 29.0 No cognitive complaints; no neuropsychological deficits PiB-PET
Papp et al., 2017 [28] HABS CN 279 114/165 73.4 29.0 CDR = 0; no deficits on Logical Memory Story A, Delayed Recall, and MMSE PiB-PET
Rodrigue et al., 2012 [91] DLBS CN 137 NA/NA 64.0 29.3 No neuropsychological deficits AV45-PET
Schoonenboom et al., 2012 [92] VU Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam SMC 275 151/124 59.0 29.0 No neuropsychological deficits CSF Aβ42,t-tau, p-tau
Snyder et al., 2016 [70] Rhode Island and Alzheimer Assessment Trial Match CN 63 24/39 62.8 29.1 MMSE score ≥ 27; no neuropsychological deficits AV45-PET
Soldan et al., 2016 [26] BIOCARD CN 222 89/133 56.9 29.5 No neuropsychological deficits CSF Aβ42, t-tau, p-tau
Taylor et al., 2017 [93] APEX CN 128 34/94 71.3 29.0 CDR = 0; no neuropsychological deficits PiB-PET
Um et al., 2017 [94] Catholic Geriatric Neuroimaging Database CN 50 18/32 68.0 28.5 CDR = 0; MMSE score > 27 FBB-PET
Van Harten et al., 2013 [95] Amsterdam Dementia Cohort SMC 132 76/56 61.4 28.3 Cognitive complaints; no neuropsychological deficits CSF—NIA-AA criteria
Visser et al., 2009 [59] DESCRIPA CN 89 41/48 67.1 29.3 No neuropsychological deficits CSF Aβ42/tau
SCI 60 31/29 66.0 28.8 Cognitive complaints; no neuropsychological deficits CSF Aβ42/tau
Wolfsgruber et al., 2015 [96] DCN SCD 82 58/24 66.7 27.7 No neuropsychological deficits CSF Aβ42/t-tau
Zhao et al., 2018 [57] GEM CN 175 104/71 86.0 NA No neuropsychological deficits PiB-PET
  1. amyloid beta, ACS-KADRC Adult Children Study Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, AD Alzheimer’s disease, ADNI Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, ADRC Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center; AIBL Australian Imaging Biomarkers & Lifestyle study, APEX University of Kansas’s Alzheimer’s Prevention through Exercise, AV45 florbetapir, BACS Berkeley Aging Cohort Study, BIOCARD Biomarkers of Cognitive Decline Among Normal Individuals, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, CN cognitively normal, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, DESCRIPA Development of screening guidelines and criteria for pre-dementia Alzheimer’s disease, DCN German Dementia Competence Network, DLBS Dallas Lifespan Brain Study, F female, FAQ Functional Assessment Questionnaire, FBB florbetaben, FCSRT Free And Cued Selective Reminding Test, GEM Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory, HABS Harvard Aging Brain Study, IMAP Imagerie Multimodale de la Maladie d’Alzheimer à un stade Precoce, INSIGHT_preAD Investigation of Alzheimer’s Predictors in Subjective Memory Complainers, KBASE Korean Brain Aging Study for Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer’s Disease, M male, MAPT Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial, MCI mild cognitive impairment, MCSA Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, NIA-AA National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer’s Association, NA not assessed, PET positron emission tomography, PiB Pittsburgh compound, p-tau phosphorylated tau, t-tau total tau, SCD subjective cognitive decline, SCI subjective cognitive impairment, SMC subjective memory complaints, WRAP Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention, WU-KADRC Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at Washington University