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Table 2 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics by region

From: Insights into globalization: comparison of patient characteristics and disease progression among geographic regions in a multinational Alzheimer’s disease clinical program

  Eastern Europe/Turkey (n = 759) Western Europe/Israel (n = 709) USA/Canada (n = 444) South America/Mexico (n = 361) Asia (n = 134) Australia/South Africa (n = 99) p value across all regions
Demographics
Age (years), mean (SD) 74.4 (8.2) 73.6 (8.0) 74.3 (9.6) 74.3 (7.7) 73.3 (7.8) 73.9 (7.8) 0.33
Female, n (%) 493 (65.0) 449 (63.3) 266 (59.9) 237 (65.7) 87 (64.9) 59 (59.6) 0.46
Height (m), mean (SD) 1.63 (0.09) 1.63 (0.10) 1.64 (0.10) 1.59 (0.09) 1.57 (0.09) 1.63 (0.09) < 0.0001
Weight (kg), mean (SD) 69.8 (13.2) 67.9 (12.7) 71.6 (15.0) 67.3 (12.2) 57.6 (9.5) 71.9 (15.3) < 0.0001
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 26.1 (4.2) 25.6 (4.0) 26.6 (4.9) 26.5 (4.1) 23.4 (3.0) 26.8 (4.8) < 0.0001
Education (years), mean (SD) 12.0 (3.3) 10.2 (4.1) 13.4 (3.3) 9.2 (4.3) 9.6 (5.0) 11.5 (3.0) < 0.0001
Marital status, n (%)        < 0.0001
 Married/with partner 442 (58.2) 531 (74.9) 294 (66.2) 218 (60.4) 104 (77.6) 74 (74.7)  
 Widowed 266 (35.0) 131 (18.5) 94 (21.2) 104 (28.8) 22 (16.4) 14 (14.1)  
 Divorced/separated 36 (4.7) 27 (3.8) 38 (8.6) 23 (6.4) 7 (5.2) 8 (8.1)  
 Single 15 (2.0) 20 (2.8) 18 (4.1) 16 (4.4) 1 (0.7) 3 (3.0)  
Caregiver, n (%)        < 0.0001
 Spouse/partner 316 (41.6) 464 (65.4) 257 (57.9) 149 (41.3) 74 (55.2) 62 (62.6)  
 Child 333 (43.9) 184 (26.0) 119 (26.8) 164 (45.4) 52 (38.8) 23 (23.2)  
 Sibling 14 (1.8) 22 (3.1) 16 (3.6) 9 (2.5) 2 (1.5) 1 (1.0)  
 Other family member 54 (7.1) 18 (2.5) 12 (2.7) 17 (4.7) 6 (4.5) 2 (2.0)  
 Friend 33 (4.3) 14 (2.0) 27 (6.1) 10 (2.8) 0 (0.0) 8 (8.1)  
 Other 9 (1.2) 6 (0.8)a 13 (2.9) 12 (3.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.0)a  
APOE ε4 carrier, n/N (%)b 405/745 (54.4) 439/696 (63.1) 239/428 (55.8) 196/342 (57.3) 69/134 (51.5) 75/93 (80.6) < 0.0001
MMSE (screening), mean (SD) 18.0 (2.9) 17.1 (2.9) 17.5 (3.0) 17.0 (3.0) 16.9 (2.9) 17.1 (3.0) < 0.0001
MMSE (baseline), mean (SD) 18.4 (2.9) 17.8 (3.3) 18.4 (3.3) 17.8 (3.0) 17.6 (3.2) 17.9 (3.3) 0.0003
MMSE (change from screening to baseline), mean (SD) 0.5 (1.9) 0.7 (2.2) 0.9 (2.3) 0.9 (2.1) 0.7 (2.7) 0.9 (2.3) 0.010
Clinical characteristics
Time since AD diagnosis (years), median (IQR) 1.30 (0.75–2.49) 1.58 (0.89–2.82) 1.90 (0.87–3.61) 2.02 (1.12–3.39) 1.39 (0.68–2.92) 2.20 (1.25–3.66) < 0.0001
Prestudy treatment duration (years), median (IQR) 1.00 (0.62–1.82) 1.11 (0.65–2.05) 1.31 (0.69–2.68) 1.07 (0.67–1.70) 1.05 (0.58–2.29) 1.26 (0.65–2.42) < 0.0001
Previously treated with a ChEI other than donepezil,c n (%) 18 (2.4) 55 (7.8) 28 (6.3) 24 (6.6) 9 (6.7) 5 (5.1) < 0.0001
Previously treated with memantine, n (%) 57 (7.5) 38 (5.4) 89 (20.0) 65 (18.0) 11 (8.2) 1 (1.0) < 0.0001
Clinical rating scale scores, mean (SD)
ADAS-Cog 25.9 (8.6) 26.7 (7.9) 24.3 (7.8) 27.2 (8.0) 25.7 (7.1) 25.3 (8.8) < 0.0001
ADCS-CGIC 3.9 (0.8) 3.9 (0.7) 3.8 (0.7) 3.6 (0.6) 3.7 (0.8) 3.8 (0.7) < 0.0001
ADCS-ADL23 53.5 (13.7) 56.3 (12.9) 58.5 (12.5) 54.5 (13.2) 57.7 (10.8) 56.1 (12.1) < 0.0001
NPI 10.1 (11.6) 10.1 (10.8) 10.2 (11.6) 10.6 (13.4) 7.2 (7.7) 11.7 (12.9) 0.11
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, ADAS-Cog Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale—Cognitive subscale, ADCS-ADL23 Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study—Activities of Daily Living, 23-item version, ADCS-CGIC Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study—Clinical Global Impression of Change, APOE apolipoprotein E, BMI body mass index, ChEI cholinesterase inhibitor, IQR interquartile range, MMSE Mini–Mental State Examination, NPI Neuropsychiatric Inventory, SD standard deviation
  2. aNot reported for an additional one patient in this region
  3. bNumber of APOE ε4 carriers/total number of patients with an APOE ε4 measurement
  4. cDonepezil-treated patients only