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Table 1 Summary of evidence for use of imaging markers for subject selection and as outcome measures in clinical trials in pre-dementia Alzheimer’s disease

From: Secondary prevention of Alzheimer’s dementia: neuroimaging contributions

  Imaging technique Pathological specificity for Alzheimer’s disease Prediction of progression in cognitively normal Prediction of progression in MCI Reproducibility Sensitivity to change Response to treatment
Molecular Amyloid PET Strong Moderate Strong Good Moderate Established
Tau PET Preliminary evidence with promising results Unknown Unknown Preliminary evidence Unknown Unknown
Functional ASL Moderate Weak Weak Moderate Preliminary evidence Preliminary evidence for exercise intervention
rs-fMRI Moderate Unknown Weak Moderate Preliminary evidence Preliminary evidence for symptomatic drugs
FDG-PET Moderate Moderate/good Strong Good Good Established for symptomatic drugs
Structural T1: Hippocampal volume Moderate Good; although long follow-up is needed Strong Good Good Established, although few effective studies
T1: Cortical atrophy Moderate Moderate/good depending on regions; long follow-up is needed Good Good Good Unknown
DTI Moderate Weak Moderate Moderate Unknown Unknown
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, ASL arterial spin labelling, DTI diffusion tensor imaging, FDG fluorodeoxyglucose, MCI mild cognitive impairment, PET positron emission tomography, rs-fMRI resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging