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Table 6 Gender-specific associations of sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, and medical history with cognitive performance

From: Patterns of cognitive function in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults—findings from the EMCOA study

  MMSE p a MoCA p Verbal memory p Attention/processing speed/executive function p Cognitive flexibility p
Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age −0.038 −0.031 0.446 −0.078* −0.063 0.327 −0.054 −0.114* 0.187 −0.185** −0.110* 0.923 −0.096* −0.042 0.311
 Education years 0.163** 0.308** < 0.001# 0.225** 0.369** < 0.001# 0.087 0.196** 0.226 0.253** 0.403** < 0.001# −0.08 −0.037 0.128
 Occupation
  Manual work Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  White-collar work 0.01 0.067 0.069 0.110* 0.066 0.118 0.100* 0.081 0.954 0.104* 0.155** 0.006 −0.007 0.004 0.114
 Monthly income
  Low Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Medium 0.133* 0.069 0.656 0.083* 0.058 0.557 0.026 0.043 0.401 0.055 −0.004 0.995 0.107* −0.008 0.933
  High 0.179** 0.058 0.96 0.137* 0.056 0.888 0.133* 0.063 0.306 0.069 −0.023 0.589 0.157* −0.064 0.059
 Body mass index
  Healthy Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Underweight 0.008 −0.003 0.939 −0.001 −0.004 0.807 −0.021 −0.101* 0.222 −0.012 0.034 0.198 0.002 0.09 0.133
  Overweight 0.041 −0.036 0.426 0.042 −0.063 0.034 0.092 −0.015 0.316 −0.029 −0.049 0.778 0.021 0.02 0.295
  Obesity 0.076 −0.039 0.111 0.073 0.011 0.93 0.085 −0.023 0.271 −0.038 −0.073* 0.243 −0.038 0.052 0.078
Lifestyle
 Solitude −0.043 0.051 0.045 −0.095* 0.005 0.045 −0.013 0.028 0.415 0.007 0.007 0.929 −0.009 0.026 0.271
 Reading habits 0.079* 0.097* 0.113 0.169** 0.185** 0.051 0.143** 0.123* 0.729 −0.002 0.056 0.022 0.031 −0.118 0.057
 Physically active 0.015 −0.063 0.295 −0.046 −0.07 0.726 −0.038 −0.053 0.892 0.100* 0.046 0.917 0.029 −0.019 0.343
 Current smoker −0.074* −0.023 0.984 −0.058* −0.001 0.467 −0.102* −0.001 0.2 −0.016 −0.002 0.894 −0.057 0.019 0.277
 Current drinker 0.055 0.012 0.922 0.059 0.042 0.4 0.063 0.064 0.281 0.014 −0.001 0.996 0.015 −0.015 0.61
Medical history
 Diabetes −0.009 −0.01 0.961 0.002 −0.002 0.967 −0.071* −0.021 0.487 −0.008 −0.031 0.559 0.002 −0.037 0.548
 Hypertension −0.007 −0.047 0.343 −0.048 −0.074* 0.343 −0.036 −0.036 0.852 0.014 −0.048 0.08 −0.053 −0.002 0.245
 Hyperlipidemia −0.004 0.021 0.285 0.015 0.021 0.463 0.032 0.007 0.997 0.017 0.067 0.282 0.01 0.074 0.257
 Stroke −0.106* −0.006 0.063 −0.035 0.001 0.475 −0.014 0.042 0.234 −0.002 −0.043 0.284 0.031 −0.100* 0.061
 Coronary heart disease −0.056 0.05 0.023 −0.053 0.03 0.081 −0.142** −0.027 0.069 0.082 0.043 0.602 0.018 0.011 0.79
 Family history of dementia −0.041 0.013 0.207 −0.01 0.017 0.446 0.013 0.041 0.612 −0.026 0.022 0.309 −0.056 −0.056 0.989
  1. Multivariate linear regression analysis with the enter method was performed on all variables and standardized regression coefficients are presented
  2. MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment
  3. ap for interactions
  4. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.001; false discovery rate adjusted #P < 0.05