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Table 10 Age-, gender-, and education-specific reference values for cognitive tests

From: Patterns of cognitive function in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults—findings from the EMCOA study

   Education level
Elementary school Junior middle school Senior middle school College and above
Age Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women
MMSE 50–54 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 26
55–59 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 26
60–64 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 26
65–70 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 26
MoCA 50–54 18 18 20 20 21 21 22 23
55–59 18 17 20 19 21 21 22 22
60–64 18 17 20 19 21 20 22 22
65–70 18 17 20 19 21 20 22 22
AVLT-IR 50–54 6 7 8 8 9 10 10 12
55–59 6 6 7 8 8 10 10 11
60–64 5 6 7 8 8 9 9 11
65–70 5 5 6 7 8 9 9 11
AVLT-SR 50–54 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 4
55–59 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3
60–64 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 3
65–70 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 3
AVLT-LR 50–54 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 3
55–59 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2
60–64 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2
65–70 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2
SDMT 50–54 13 12 19 19 22 25 26 31
55–59 12 10 17 18 20 23 24 30
60–64 11 9 15 16 19 22 23 28
65–70 10 7 14 15 17 20 21 26
DSF 50–54 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6
55–59 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6
60–64 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6
65–70 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6
DSB 50–54 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
55–59 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
60–64 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 3
65–70 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 3
TMT-A 50–54 110 123 100 108 95 97 88 84
55–59 113 129 106 113 100 102 93 89
60–64 116 130 109 116 103 105 97 92
65–70 117 133 110 118 105 107 98 94
TMT-B 50–54 281 305 258 269 245 242 229 210
55–59 281 316 263 278 250 251 235 219
60–64 284 321 268 287 254 259 239 229
65–70 288 332 213 296 259 269 244 239
LMT-IR 50–54 1 0 3 2 5 4 7 7
55–59 2 0.5 3 2 5 4 7 7
60–64 2 0 3 2 5 4 7 7
65–70 2 0.5 3 2 5 4 7 7
SCWT-IT 50–54 78 67 86 75 82 74 69 67
55–59 83 67 89 78 85 78 75 72
60–64 86 70 92 80 89 81 79 76
65–70 89 71 96 83 94 85 86 82
  1. Age-, gender-, and education-specific reference values were defined as 1.5 times root mean square error (RMSE) under the mean of normative score for MMSE, MoCA, AVLT-IR, AVLT-SR, AVLT-LR, SDMT, DSF, DSB, and LMT-IR, and 1.5 times RMSE above the mean of normative score for TMT-A, TMT-B, and SCWT-IT
  2. AVLT-IR Auditory Verbal Learning Test—immediate recall, AVLT-LR Auditory Verbal Learning Test—long recall, AVLT-SR Auditory Verbal Learning Test—short recall, DSB digit span backwards, DSF digit span forwards, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, SCWT-IT Stroop Color-Word Test Interference Trial, SDMT Symbol Digit Modalities Test, TMT Trail Making Test, LMT-IR Logical Memory Test—immediate recall