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Table 3 Validation studies assessing the psychometric properties of the DS

From: Utility of the Dependence Scale in dementia: validity, meaningfulness, and health economic considerations

Study Population n Outcome
Stern et al. 1994 [3]: Predictors I study Mild–moderate AD 249 Inter-rater reliability (interclass correlation), 0.99 for total score; internal consistency (Cronbach’s α), 0.66; significant correlation with CDR (r = 0.34) and mMMS (r = − 0.27)
Lenderking et al. 2013 [10]: Predictors I + II studies Mild-moderate AD 460 Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α), 0.72; construct validity, correlation with BDRS (r = 0.60), mMMS (r = − 0.30)
Lenderking et al. 2013 [10]; DADE Study Mild-moderate AD 172 Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α), 0.72; construct validity, significant correlation with MMSE (r = − 0.47), CDR-SB (r = − 0.64), DAD (r = − 0.72), and NPI (r = 0.21)
Lenderking et al. 2013 [10]: ELN-AIP 901 study Mild-moderate AD 166 Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α), 0.74; construct validity, significant correlation with MMSE (r = − 0.53), ADAS-cog (r = − 0.42), DAD (r = − 0.77), and NPI (r = 0.51)
Wyrwich et al. 2014 [13] Mild-moderate AD 2334 Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α), 0.66; construct validity, significant correlation with ADAS-cog (r = 0.36), MMSE (r = − 0.34), DAD (r = − 0.63), CDR-SB (r = 0.61), and NPI (r = 0.32); responsiveness, significant correlation with change scores on ADAS-cog, DAD, CDR-SB, and MMSE (baseline to week 78)
Brickman et al. 2002 [18]: Predictors 1 study Mild-moderate AD 230 Statistically significant change in total DS score over time (0.5 points per 6 month interval) (p < 0.001).
Garre-Olmo et al. 2015 [14]: CoDep AD study* Mild-severe AD 343 Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α), 0.85; significant correlation with DAD score (r = 0.900), CBI (r = 0.323), NPI (r = 0.374), and MMSE (r = 0.617)
  1. CDR clinical dementia rating, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, mMMS modified MMSE, BDRS blessed dementia rating scale, CDR-SB Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes, DAD disability assessment for dementia, ADAS-cog Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale, NPI neuropsychiatric inventory, CBI caregiver burden interview. *Spanish translation of DS