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Table 1 Subject characteristics by family history and APOE4 groups

From: Synergistic interaction between APOE and family history of Alzheimer’s disease on cerebral amyloid deposition and glucose metabolism

  FHAPOE4 FH+APOE4 FHAPOE4+ FH+APOE4+ P
n 180 38 37 13  
Age (years), mean (SD) 68.2 (8.2) 65.2 (9.5) 69.6 (9.4) 68.2 (9.5) 0.41
Gender, female/male (% female) 97/83 (53.9) 15/23 (39.5) 20/17 (54.1) 6/7 (46.2) 0.12
Education (years), mean (SD) 11.9 (4.9) 13.4 (4.1) 11.0 (4.1) 12.2 (4.4) 0.15
APOE4 dosage, n of ε4/ε4 (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (15)  
MMSE (raw score), mean (SD) 27.0 (2.4) 27.5 (2.4) 26.2 (2.9) 27.3 (2.5) 0.11
Neuropsychological test performance (z score, mean (SD))
 Immediate Verbal Memory Free Recall 0.88 (0.96) 0.86 (0.98) 0.60 (1.02) 0.81 (0.73) 0.46
 Delayed Verbal Memory Free Recall 0.41 (0.87) 0.54 (0.89) 0.29 (0.90) 0.53 (0.62) 0.60
 Delayed Verbal Memory Recognition 0.19 (0.78) 0.28 (0.65) −0.003 (0.84) 0.27 (0.69) 0.40
 Delayed Nonverbal Memory 0.33 (0.92) 0.49 (0.74) 0.05 (0.82) 0.45 (0.58) 0.14
 Semantic Fluency 0.30 (1.12) 0.51 (1.18) −0.09 (0.80) 0.75 (1.58) 0.05
 Confrontational Naming 0.52 (0.89) 0.65 (0.63) 0.35 (0.87) 0.87 (0.58) 0.22
 Constructional Praxis −0.04 (0.93) 0.21 (0.66) −0.08 (1.13) −0.10 (1.04) 0.46
 Stroop Color-Word 0.23 (1.04) 0.45 (0.91) −0.001 (0.76) 0.27 (0.91) 0.27
 Trail Making Test A 0.65 (1.93) 1.03 (0.46) 0.48 (1.91) 0.85 (0.50) 0.54
 Trail Making Test Ba 0.89 (1.04) 1.40 (0.85) 0.94 (1.14) 0.96 (0.73) 0.11
 Digit Span Forward 0.36 (1.07) 0.52 (0.90) −0.04 (0.98) 0.58 (0.92) 0.08
 Digit Span Backward 0.12 (1.23) 0.52 (1.34) −0.24 (0.86) 0.38 (1.81) 0.06
Amyloid-beta positive, n (%) 19 (11) 5 (13) 7 (19) 5 (38)* 0.03
  1. APOE4 apolipoprotein ε4 allele, APOE4+ APOE4 carrier, APOE4 APOE4 noncarrier, FH parental or sibling (first-degree relative) family history of late-onset AD (age of onset ≥ 65 years), FH+ positive FH, FH negative FH, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, SD standard deviation
  2. a35% of FHAPOE4, 24% of FH+APOE4, 59% of FHAPOE4+, and 38% of FH+APOE4+ did not complete the Trail Making Test B due to cognitive reasons, participation refusal, or illiteracy
  3. *Significantly different from the other groups based on post-hoc analyses, multiple comparisons corrected (P = 0.0067). Homozygote APOE4 carriers were not among the five amyloid-beta-positive individuals