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Table 1 Sample characteristics

From: The EMIF-AD PreclinAD study: study design and baseline cohort overview

Demographic n Combined sample n Amsterdam site n Manchester site
(n = 285) (n = 204) (n = 81)
Age (years) 285 75.0 (9.7) (range 60–95) 204 70.8 (7.8) (range 60–94) 81 85.7 (4.3)*** (range 79–95)
Gender (% female) 285 182 (64%) 204 119 (58%) 81 63 (78%)**
Education (years) 278 14.8 (4.2) 204 14.9 (4.5) 74 14.2 (3.0)
NART 285 41.9 (6.0) 204 41.2 (6.4) 81 43.7 (4.3)***
MMSE 281 28.9 (1.2) 204 28.9 (1.2) 77 28.7 (1.3)
TICS-m 282 28.3 (3.2) 204 28.3 (3.0) 78 28.5 (3.7)
CERAD 10-word recall 285 22.8 (3.3) 204 22.0 (3.0) 81 24.8 (3.3)***
GDS 282 1.0 (1.5) 204 0.7 (1.2) 78 1.9 (1.7)***
CDR total 284 0 (0.1) 204 0 80 0.03 (0.1)*
CDR sum of boxes 284 0.03 (0.1) 204 0 80 0.1 (0.3)**
APOE e4 carrier 282 85 (30%) 202 66 (33%) 80 19 (24%)
APOE4 genotype 282   202   80  
 e2e2   2 (1%)   2 (1%)  
 e2e3   24 (9%)   12 (6%)   12 (15%)
 e2e4   9 (3%)   6 (3%)   3 (4%)
 e3e3   171 (61%)   122 (60%)   49 (61%)
 e3e4   69 (25%)   54 (27%)   15 (19%)
 e4e4   7 (3)   6 (3%)   1 (1%)
Family history dementia 273 106 (39%) 203 92 (45%) 70 14 (20%)***
Diabetes type II 204 13 (6%)
Current smoker 281 23 (8%) 203 21 (10%) 78 2 (3%)
Alcohol use present 282 224 (79%) 204 158 (77%) 78 66 (85%)
Blood pressure (mmHg) 281 152 (21)/80 (12) 202 155 (21)/83 (11) 79 143 (19)/70 (10)***
Pulse rate (beats/min) 279 66 (11) 202 65 (11) 77 69 (10)**
Height (m) 283 1.66 (0.10) 204 1.69 (0.09) 79 1.60 (0.08)***
Weight (kg) 283 73.1 (14.0) 204 75.7 (13.6) 79 66.6 (13.0)***
Body mass index 283 26.3 (4.0) 204 26.4 (3.8) 79 26.1 (4.3)
Waist circumference (cm) 282 93.4 (13.6) 203 94.7 (12.0) 79 89.9 (16.6)**
Hip circumference (cm) 234 101.9 (11.4) 155 102.6 (9.8) 79 100.5 (14.0)
Grip strength (kg) 283 28.5 (11.3) 204 30.9 (10.9) 79 22.2 (9.8)***
CSF Aβ1–42 (pg/ml) 126 889 (314)
CSF Aβ1–40 (pg/ml) 126 9592 (2844)
Ratio CSF Aβ1–42/1–40 126 0.10 (0.03)
CSF total-tau (pg/ml) 126 412 (143)
CSF p-tau 181 (pg/ml) 126 76 (44)
Visual read PET abnormal 272 58 (22%) 196 32 (16%) 76 26 (34%)**
Fazekas score 279 1.3 (0.9) 199 1.2 (0.8) 80 1.7 (0.8)***
Medial temporal lobe atrophy score (average left and right) 277 0.7 (0.7) 197 0.6 (0.7) 80 0.9 (0.6)*
Parietal atrophy (average left and right) 279 1.1 (0.7) 199 1.1. (0.7) 80 1.2 (0.6)*
  1. Data presented as mean (standard deviation) or n (%)
  2. NART National Adult Reading Test, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, TICS-m Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, CERAD Consortium to Establish A Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating, APOE Apolipoprotein E, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, amyloid beta, p-tau phosphorylated tau, PET positron emission tomography
  3. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, group difference assessed with t test or chi-square test