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Table 2 Performance of participant groups on experimental tasks

From: Retained capacity for perceptual learning of degraded speech in primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer’s disease

  Controls nfvPPA svPPA lvPPA tAD
Main sine-wave effect
 Numbers (total possible score of 120) 112.4 (6.1) 53.1 (39.2) a 107.9 (9.2) 57.6 (45.8) a 98.4 (8.9)
 Place names (total possible score of 40) 35.4 (2.8) 21.9 (11.4) 25.3 (4.4) 19.9 (11.7) 28.1 (5.6)
   Near − far place names 2.4 (3.2)b 6.7 (4.3) b 7.1 (2.4) b 6.1 (2.8) b 6.7 (3.5) b
 Numbers > places 0.05 (0.1)c − 0.10 (0.2) 0.27 (0.1) c,d − 0.02 (0.2) 0.12 (0.1)c
Perceptual learning effect
 Numbers 2.1 (3.2)b 3.1 (3.6)b 4.3 (3.5)b 3.7 (3.7)b 6.2 (6.3)b
   Repeat − novel numbers 0.3 (2.1) 1.7 (3.3) 0.3 (2.6) − 0.1 (1.6) − 0.3 (1.6)
 Place names 0.6 (1.2)e 2.2 (2.5)e 1.3 (3.4) 1.9 (2.3)e − 0.1 (2.2)
Control tasks
 Natural speech numbers (total possible score of 30) 29.9 (0.2) 21.1 (9.4) 30.0 (0.0) 22.1 (7.8) 29.8 (0.4)
 Natural speech place names (total possible score of 16) 16.0 (0.0) 14.7 (0.6) 15.9 (0.1) 14.1 (0.9) 16.0 (0.0)
 Geographical knowledge (total possible score of 80) 79.9 (0.3) 75.8 (6.4) 70.6 (12.0) d 73.1 (6.4) 75.6 (3.2)
   Near − far place names 0.12 (0.3) − 1.11 (3.4) 4.0 (3.9) b 2.57 (2.2)b 0.2 (4.1)
  1. Abbreviations: Controls Healthy control group, lvPPA Patient group with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, Nat. Natural, nfvPPA Patient group with non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia, svPPA Patient group with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, SW Sine wave, tAD Patient group with clinically typical Alzheimer’s disease
  2. The table summarises participant group performance data for the key experimental tasks of interest assessing comprehension of sine-wave speech stimuli, natural speech and geographical semantic control tasks (see text for details). Perceptual learning indices were generated for each sine-wave condition by splitting the total number of trials in each condition into four trial blocks and subtracting block 1 score from block 4 score. Significant differences (p < 0.05) are coded as follows: bold, significant difference from healthy controls; asignificant difference from svPPA group; bsignificant performance advantage for near > far places; csignificant within-group advantage for sine-wave numbers relative to place names; dsignificant difference from all other participant groups; esignificant within-group improvement over time