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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and general neuropsychological data for the participant groups

From: Retained capacity for perceptual learning of degraded speech in primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer’s disease

  Controls nfvPPA svPPA lvPPA tAD
Demographic and clinical
  No. of participants, M/F 8/9 3/6 7/3 6/1 4/6
  Age, years 67.7 (5.2) 69.6 (9.2) 64.9 (7.6) 66.3 (6.1) 70.5 (8.9)
  Handedness (R/L/A) 16/0/1 8/1/0 10/0/0 7/0/0 9/1/0
  Education, years 16.2 (2.6) 14.9 (3.3) 14.8 (3.3) 15.1 (2.3) 14.0 (1.8)
  MMSE (total possible score of 30) 29.7 (0.5) 24.4 (5.1) 25.2 (5.3) 18.4 (8.0) 19.1 (5.1)
  Symptom duration, years NA 3.6 (1.3) 5.3 (2.0) 3.3 (1.3) 6.1 (3.1)
  PTA best ear (N/mild/moderate) 4/11/0a 1/6/1b 4/6/0 3/2/1b 2/5/0c
General intellect (IQ)
  WASI Verbal IQ 127.6 (5.9) 76.4 (17.7) 67.5 (22.4) 60.6 (8.3) 91.8 (19.3)
  WASI Performance IQ 121.7 (13.7) 100.3 (21.8) 110.1 (21.8) 79.4 (13.1) 84.7 (20.3) b
Episodic memory
  RMT Words (total possible score of 50) 48.4 (1.9) 40.3 (7.3) a 33.4 (5.7) d 31.0 (7.3) a 15.7 (3.5) b,e
  RMT Faces (total possible score of 50) 44.5 (4.4) 39.1 (4.0)a 35.0 (6.2) c 31.7 (5.2) 18.2 (3.2) b,e
Working memory
  Digit span forward (maximum) 7.2 (1.0) 4.6 (1.4) 7.2 (1.2) 4.0 (1.3) b 6.2 (0.9)
  Spatial span forward (maximum) 5.5 (0.8)a 4.8 (1.2) 5.5 (0.9) 3.3 (0.8) NA
Executive skills
  Digit span reverse (maximum) 5.1 (1.1) 3.0 (0.9) b 5.4 (2.1) 2.6 (0.9) a 3.8 (0.8) b
  Spatial span reverse (maximum) 5.4 (0.9)a 3.8 (1.5) 5.2 (1.2) 3.0 (1.0) NA
  Letter fluency (total) 18.4 (5.1) 6.2 (6.0) 10.2 (4.5) b 4.5 (6.5) c 9.9 (6.0)
  Category fluency (total) 25.6 (5.4) 9.7 (4.9) 17.6 (37.2) b 5.0 (7.5) 6.3 (4.9)
  Trails Making Test A (seconds) 31.8 (8.0) 71.3 (36.9) 45.1 (37.2) 79.2 (37.6) a 92.8 (40.6) a
Posterior cortical skills
  GDA Calculation (total possible score of 24) 13.6 (4.1) 6.0 (6.4) b 15.0 (7.3)a 3.0 (2.2) c 3.4 (4.4) c
  VOSP Object Decision (total possible score of 20) 18.9 (1.0) 17.4 (1.9) 16.2 (3.1) 15.3 (2.6) 15.5 (2.3)
Neurolinguistic skills
 Auditory input processing
   PALPA-3 (total possible score of 36) 35.1 (1.1)a 34.6 (2.3) 35.3 (1.0) 31.1 (5.2) NA
 Word retrieval
   GNT (total possible score of 30) 27.1 (2.5) 13.8 (4.8) a 1.2 (2.2) d 9.3 (10.3) 12.7 (9.2) b
   BNT (total possible score of 30) 29.4 (0.6)a 22.0 (5.0) 6.4 (5.2) a 9.9 (8.5) NA
 Comprehension
   BPVS (total possible score of 51) 48.3 (5.6) 33.3 (14.9) 9.5 (14.8) 29.3 (7.3) 40.1 (5.5) b
   Synonyms concrete (total possible score of 25) 24.5 (0.6)a 19.0 (4.2) b 16.6 (3.3) c 17.7 (2.8) NA
   Synonyms abstract (total possible score of 25) 24.5 (0.8)a 19.3 (4.5) b 15.6 (3.6) c 17.8 (4.0) b NA
   PALPA-55 (total possible score of 24) 23.9 (0.4)a 19.1 (4.5) 22.3 (2.1)c 15.7 (4.9) NA
 Speech repetition
   Polysyllabic words (total possible score of 45) 44.8 (0.9)a 35.1 (3.6) b 48.9 (0.6) 34.5 (2.6) NA
   Short sentences (total possible score of 10) 9.7 (0.6)a 4.0 (2.9) a 7.8 (1.7) a 4.6 (2.2) NA
 Spelling
   BST (total possible score of 30) 26.6 (1.6)a 14.2 (8.0) 13.0 (7.5) b 13.0 (7.3) b NA
  1. Abbreviations: A Ambidextrous, BNT Boston Naming Test [52], BPVS British Picture Vocabulary Scale [53], BST Baxter Spelling Test (Baxter & Warrington, 1994), Controls healthy control group, Digit span forward/ reverse Maximum digit span recorded [54], F Female, GDA Graded Difficulty Arithmetic [55], GNT Graded Naming Test [56], IQ Intelligence Quotient, L left, lvPPA Patient group with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, M Male, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination [57], N Normal, NA, Not available, nfvPPA Patient group with non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia, PALPA Psycholinguistic Assessments of Language Processing in Aphasia [58], PTA Pure-tone average, R Right, RMT Recognition Memory Test [59], Spatial span forward/ reverse Maximum spatial span recorded [54], svPPA Patient group with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, Synonyms concrete/abstract Single-word comprehension of single words [60], tAD Patient group with clinically typical Alzheimer’s disease, Trail Making Test A, Part A of the Trail Making Test [61], VOSP Visual Object Space Perception [62], WASI Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence [63]
  2. Mean (SD) values are shown. Raw scores are presented, with the maximum value possible given in parentheses, unless otherwise indicated; significant differences from healthy controls (p < 0.05) are shown in boldface type. Reduced numbers of participants completing particular tests were as indicated: an − 2; bn − 1; cn − 3; dn − 4
  3. eNote that tAD participants were given the short form of the RMT (maximum score of 25)