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Table 2 Baseline characteristics by clinical diagnosis and Aβ status

From: The EMIF-AD Multimodal Biomarker Discovery study: design, methods and cohort characteristics

   Normal cognition MCI AD-type dementia
Aβ– Aβ+ Aβ– Aβ+ Aβ– Aβ+
Total n n = 365 n = 127 n = 220 n = 307 n = 27 n = 175
Age (years) 1221 64.4 (7.6) 66.9 (7.9)** 68.3 (8.2) 70.7 (7.4)*** 73.0 (8.4) 69.9 (8.8)
Female, n 1221 203 (56) 66 (52) 108 (49) 172 (56) 12 (44) 96 (55)
Education (years) 1221 13.5 (3.7) 12.7 (4.0)* 10.6 (3.8) 10.8 (3.7) 8.5 (4.4) 10.6 (3.8)**
APOE ε4 carrier, n 1221 122 (33) 76 (60)*** 46 (21) 200 (65)*** 7 (26) 114 (65)***
Mean follow-up time (years) 758 2.3 (0.8) 2.5 (1.1) 2.2 (1.3) 2.2 (1.3) 1.7 (0.9) 2.2 (1.4)
MMSE score 1215 28.9 (1.1) 28.8 (1.2) 27.0 (2.3) 25.9 (2.7)*** 21.5 (5.4) 21.7 (4.6)
Memory delayed z-score 1049 0.1 (1.1) 0.0 (1.2) −0.9 (1.3) −1.4 (1.4)*** −2.2 (1.2) −2.4 (1.1)
Language z-score 1181 −0.2 (1.0) −0.1 (1.0) − 0.7 (1.2) − 1.0 (2.0) − 1.9 (1.2) − 2.3 (2.4)
Attention z-score 1128 0.3 (1.1) 0.2 (0.9) −1.0 (1.8) −1.0 (1.8) −2.1 (2.5) −2.1 (2.0)
Executive functioning z-score 976 0.3 (1.1) 0.1 (1.1) −0.9 (1.9) −1.4 (2.1)* −1.2 (2.5) −3.4 (2.8)*
Visuoconstruction z-score 664 0.2 (1.4) 0.2 (0.8) −0.3 (1.7) −0.4 (1.8) −2.1 (2.4) −1.3 (2.0)
  1. Results are mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables or frequency (%) for dichotomous variables
  2. amyloid-beta, AD Alzheimer’s disease, APOE apolipoprotein E, MCI mild cognitive impairment, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination
  3. *p < 0.05 in comparison to Aβ– group
  4. **p < 0.01in comparison to Aβ– group
  5. ***p < 0.001 in comparison to Aβ– group