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Table 3 Statistical group comparisons of neurolinguistic and neuropsychological data

From: Single-word comprehension deficits in the nonfluent variant of primary progressive aphasia

  Group   MV comparisonsc Other comparisonsc
Variables MV NFV SV LV HC N HC P a,b MV-HC MV-NFV MV-SV MV-LV NFV-HC NFV-SV SV-HC LV-HC
Age (years) 70
(49–80)
66
(57–70)
63
(52–73)
74
(63–77)
67.5 (53–89) 64 0.50a
Gender (female/male) 3/4 3/2 4/1 1/2 34/30 64 0.68b
Education (years) 12 (12–17) 10 (10–16) 13 (8–14) 12 (10–18) 13 (8–22) 64 0.76 a
Symptom duration (months) 37 (16–53) 45 (29–74) 19 (6–131) 59 (48–95) 0.11a
CDR 0.5 (0.5–1) 0.5 (0–0.5) 0.5 (0.5–1) 0.5 (0–1) 0 (0) 64 < 0.001 a < 0.001 0.064 0.43 0.45 < 0.001 0.18 < 0.001 < 0.001
MMSE (/30) 23.5 (5–28) 26 (18–30) 26 (23–30) 26 (24–29) 29 (27–30) 64 0.002 a 0.001 0.46 0.17 0.24 0.015 0.67 0.07 0.04
CPM (/36) 27.5 (17–31) 26 (25–29) 34 (27–36) 32 (12–32) 33 (24–36) 62 0.001 a 0.001 0.83 0.099 0.44 0.003 0.048 0.70 0.15
BNT (/60) 43(4–52) 47 (7–53) 14 (9–33) 46 (24–57) 56 (44–60) 64 < 0.001 a < 0.001 0.46 0.074 0.49 0.005 0.17 < 0.001 0.16
AVF (1 min) 7.5 (2–12) 7 (2–16) 11 (6–16) 8 (7–23) 22.0 (14–30) 35 < 0.001 a < 0.001 0.85 0.23 0.44 0.001 0.53 0.001 0.087
AAT sum single-word comprehension (/60) 41 (27–49) 53 (51–56) 35 (31–58) 53 (50–54) 58 (48–60) 62 0.001 a < 0.001 0.004 0.37 0.016 0.011 0.12 0.003 0.023
PALPA auditory word-picture matching (/40) 39 (36–40) 39 (37–40) 26 (21–39) 38 (38–39) 40 (38–40) 49 < 0.001 a 0.001 0.71 0.031 0.49 0.030 0.035 < 0.001 0.001
PALPA verbal assoc.-sem. HI (/15) 13 (11–15) 13 (10–15) 12 (5–15) 15 (15–15) 15 (10–15) 51 0.004 a 0.02 0.64 0.58 0.041 0.025 0.60 0.018 0.17
PALPA verbal assoc.-sem. LI (/15) 11 (5–14) 11 (7–14) 7 (3–14) 13 (12–14) 13 (11–15) 51 < 0.001 a 0.003 0.78 0.36 0.12 0.009 0.25 0.006 0.46
PPT (/52) 47 (45–47) 48 (47–49) 34 (31–47) 49 (45–52) 51 (45–52) 60 < 0.001 a < 0.001 0.012 0.035 0.34 < 0.001 0.011 < 0.001 0.23
BORB easy B (/32) 28 (25–29) 30 (28–31) 22 (18–25) 28 (26–30) 30 (25–32) 62 < 0.001 a 0.017 0.091 0.008 0.79 0.68 0.008 < 0.001 0.17
BORB hard A (/32) 21 (19–25) 26 (21–31) 19 (17–26) 23 (21–26) 27 (20–31) 62 < 0.001 a < 0.001 0.081 0.36 0.30 0.79 0.073 0.001 0.034
WEZT verb comprehension (/60) 50.5 (42–56) 55 (40–60) 48 (32–58) 57 (53–57) 59 (56–60) 21 < 0.001 a < 0.001 0.71 0.58 0.070 0.037 0.53 0.001 0.013
WEZT auditory sentence comprehension (/40) 32 (12–36) 32 (26–35) 38 (33–39) 37 (27–40) 40 (36–40) 23 < 0.001 a < 0.001 0.93 0.022 0.20 < 0.001 0.021 0.001 0.097
WEZT active sentence anagram (/10) 10 (5–10) 10 (9–10) 10 (10–10) 10 (10–10) 10 (10–10) 23 0.046 a 0.005 0.56 0.18 0.29 0.032 0.32 1 1
WEZT passive sentence anagram (/10) 7 (5–10) 10 (3–10) 10 (9–10) 10 (10–10) 10 (10–10) 23 < 0.001 a < 0.001 0.40 0.066 0.038 0.002 0.64 0.002 1
AAT phoneme repetition (/30) 23 (14–29) 27 (26–30) 30 (29–30) 30 (29–30) 30 (28–30) 49 < 0.001 a < 0.001 0.20 0.007 0.027 < 0.001 0.032 0.93 0.55
AAT monosyllabic word repetition (/30) 29 (19–30) 29 (24–30) 29 (27–30) 30 (29–30) 30 (27–30) 49 0.076a
AAT cognate word repetition (/30) 29 (5–30) 29 (27–30) 30 (28–30) 30 (29–30) 30 (27–30) 49 0.002 a < 0.001 0.71 0.16 0.27 0.002 0.24 0.46 0.24
AAT concatenated word repetition (/30) 28 (1–30) 26 (15–30) 29 (26–30) 29 (15–30) 30 (28–30) 49 0.001 a 0.001 0.93 0.35 0.69 0.002 0.24 0.058 0.088
AAT sentence repetition (/30) 27.5 (0–28) 24 (17–28) 29 (27–30) 24 (13–26) 30 (26–30) 49 < 0.001 a < 0.001 0.22 0.04 0.11 < 0.001 0.016 0.33 0.001
PALPA single-word repetition (/80) 77 (55–80) 76 (49–80) 79 (77–80) 80 (79–80) 80 (73–80) 50 0.10a
PALPA pseudoword repetition (/80) 53 (11–72) 63 (20–78) 77 (67–79) 66 (56–74) 77 (45–80) 50 0.001 a 0.001 0.21 0.028 0.18 0.022 0.17 0.53 0.035
DIAS diadochokinesis 62.5 (32–115) 51 (18–79) 80 (50–147) 114 (77–117) 126 (56–192) 23 0.001 a 0.003 0.47 0.23 0.12 0.001 0.12 0.093 0.10
DIAS consonant and vowel repetition (/30) 25.5 (11–28) 28 (20–30) 30 (24–30) 30 (29–30) 30 (29–30) 23 < 0.001 a < 0.001 0.20 0.10 0.019 0.008 0.58 0.096 0.37
  1. Data are shown as median and range (minimum–maximum)
  2. AAT Aachen Aphasia Test, assoc.-sem associative semantic, AVF Animal Verbal Fluency, BNT Boston Naming Test, BORB Birmingham Object Recognition Battery, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating, CPM Colored Progressive Matrices, DIAS Diagnostisch Instrument voor Apraxie van de Spraak, HI high imageability, LI low imageability, LV logopenic variant, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, MV mixed variant, NFV nonfluent variant, PALPA Psycholinguistic Assessment of Language Processing in Aphasia, PPT Pyramids and Palm trees Test, SV semantic variant, WEZT Werkwoorden En Zinnen test
  3. – Data not available
  4. aKruskal-Wallis statistical analyses were performed to assess between-group differences (HC, MV, NFV, SV and LV) for continuous variables and bchi-square tests for categorical variables. Pair-wise post-hoc comparisons were performed with Mann-Whitney U testsc. P values are not corrected for multiple comparisons. P values in bold are significantly different between groups