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Table 2 Longitudinal neuropsychological test results for brothers A and B

From: Reduced penetrance of the PSEN1 H163Y autosomal dominant Alzheimer mutation: a 22-year follow-up study

  Year Brother RAVL Block design Digit symbol
Baseline 1995 A + 0.74 + 1.48 + 1.41
+  2 years 1997 A + 0.45 + 2.00 + 1.06
+  6 years 2001 A + 0.16 + 1.09 + 0.97
+  11 years 2006 A −1.57 + 0.70 + 0.37
+  13 years 2008 A −2.91 −1.64 −1.35
+  14 years 2009 A −3.30 −1.90 −2.56
Baseline 1995 B −0.32 + 1.48 + 0.80
+  2 years 1997 B −0.61 + 2.00 + 0.54
+  6 years 2001 B −0.22 + 0.57 + 0.11
+  11 years 2006 B −0.41 + 0.83 + 0.63
+  14 years 2009 B −0.32 + 1.48 + 0.46
+  16 years 2011 B −0.32 + 1.35 + 0.57
+  18 years 2013 B + 0.16 + 0.57 + 0.11
+  22 years 2017 B + 0.16 + 0.96 + 0.28
  1. RAVL Rey Auditory Verbal Learning
  2. The brothers underwent repeated neuropsychological testing between 1995 and 2017. Numbers in bold are test scores with z less than − 1.5, representing results below the cognitively normal threshold